Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

Ni Luh Arpiwi, I Made Sutha Negara, I Nengah Simpen


Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field.  The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to evaluate the survival and growth of budded plants in the field. Pods were collected from 30 trees in Lovina Beach, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Oil was extracted from seeds using soxhlet with hexane as a solvent.  The high oil yielding trees were propagated by budding using root stocks grown from M. pinnata seeds.  Scions were taken from young branches of selected trees. Incision was made on rootstock and the same size of cut was made on a scion containing a single bud.  The scion was inserted to the incision of rootstock then closed tightly using plastic strips.   The plastic was removed when the scion grew into a little green shoot. One month after plastic removal, the scion union grew into a single shoot and then the budded plants were removed to polybags. Budded plants were planted in the field of Bukit Jimbaran, Badung Regency, Bali with 4 × 4 spacing. Results showed all budded plants successfully grow new shoots. Two months after planting the survival of budded plants was 100%. Plant height increased by 22.13 cm, stem diameter increased by 2.43 mm and the number of compound leaf increased by 2.08.  It can be concluded that four high oil yielding trees were selected from Lovina Beach and successfully propagated by budding. Survival of budded plants was 100% with vigorous growth.


oil content, selected trees, scion, rootstock, survival, mother tree

Full Text:



Atabani AE, Silitonga AS, Badruddin IA et al. (2012) A comprehensive review on biodiesel as an alternative energy resource and its characteristics. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (4): 2070 – 2093. 1

Abideen Z, Hameed A, Koyro HW et al. (2014) Sustaina-ble

biofuel production from non-food sources – An overview. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 26 (12): 1057 – 1066. doi: 10.9755/ejfa.v26i12.19107.

Arpiwi NL, Yan G, Barbour EL et al. (2013) Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of root nodule bacteria nodulating Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, a biodiesel tree. Plant and Soil 367 (1 – 2): 363 – 377. doi: 10.1007/s11104-012-1472-4.

Arpiwi NL, Yan G, Barbour EL, Plummer JA (2013a) Ge-netic diversity, seed traits and salinity tolerance of Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, a biodiesel tree. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 60 (2): 677 – 692. doi: 10.1007/s10722-012-9866-y.

Sangwan S, Rao DV, Sharma RA (2010) A Review on Pongamia Pinnata (L.) Pierre: a great versatile leguminous plant. Nature and Science 8 (11): 130 – 139.

Abadi A, Maynard H, Arpiwi NL et al. (2016) Economics of oil production from Pongamia (Millettia pinnata) for biofuel in Australia. BioEnergy Research. 9 (3): 874 – 883. doi: 10.1007/s12155-016-9739-x.

Mukta N, Murthy IYLN, Sripal P (2009) Variability as-sessment in Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre germplasm for biodiesel traits. Industrial Crops and Products 29 (2 – 3): 536 – 540. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2008.10.002.

Srivastava A, Prasad R (2000) Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 4 (2): 111 – 133. doi: 10.1016/S1364-0321(99)00013-1.

Silitonga AS, Atabani AE, Mahlia TMI et al. (2011) A review

on prospect of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel in Indonesia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 15 (8): 3733 – 3756. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.011.

Jingura RM, Kamusoko R (2015) Mini Review: A multi-factor evaluation of Jatropha as a feedstock for biofuels: the case of sub-Saharan Africa. Biofuel Research Journal 7: 254 – 257. doi: 10.18331/BRJ2015.2.3.3.

Syakir M (2010) Prospek dan kendala pengembangan jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) sebagai bahan bakar nabati di Indonesia. Perspektif 9 (2): 55 – 65.

Kumar GNM (2011) Propagation of plants by budding and grafting. Wahington DC, A Pacifik Northwest Extension Publication Publication.

Karoshi VR, Hegde GV (2002) Vegetative propagation of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre: Hitherto a neglected Species. The Indian Forester 128 (3): 348 – 350.

Ali MS, Kumar R, Alam I et al. (2007) Vegetative propaga-tion in Karanja (Pongamia pinnata L.). Biosciences Bio-technology Research Asia 4 (2): 799 – 803.

Sunil N, Kumar V, Sivaraj N et al. (2009) Variability and divergence in Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre germplasm – candidate tree for biodiesel. GCB Bioenergy 1 (6): 382 – 391. doi: 10.1111/j.1757-1707.2009.01030.x.

Kaushik N, Kumar S, Kumar K et al. (2007) Genetic vari-ability and association studies in pod and seed traits of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre in Harayana, India. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54 (8): 1827 – 1832. doi: 10.1007/s10722-006-9204-3.


Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Tropical Life Science