Mangroves and Their Response to a Heavy Metal Polluted Wetland in The North Coast of Puerto Rico
Keywords:Mangroves, Bioconcentration, Retranslocation, Heavy Metals, Phytoremediation
AbstractPeninsula La Esperanza is part of the San Juan Bay Estuary and located in the north coast of Puerto Rico. Mangroves are the predominant type of vegetation; that can exhibit diverse external and internal mechanisms allowing them to tolerate and to act as phytoremediators of heavy metals (HM) in surrounding soils. This study was focused in three mangrove species that can be found in La Esperanza: Rhizophora mangle (RM), Laguncularia racemosa (LR) and Avicennia germinans (AG). Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were selected to be identified, measure concentrations in sediments, in green (GL) and senescent (SL) leaves, and study phytoremediation potential as a mitigation alternative calculating bioconcentration afctors (BCFs) and retranslocation percents (RT%). For this, Peninsula La Esperanza was divided in three main research sites. Our results show a significant difference among all heavy metals and their distribution in each site. Moreover, the mangrove species, A. germinans, showed lower RT% for Hg in all three sites, which could be considered the best species for phytoextraction of this heavy metal. The results suggest that the three species have a synergistic effect in the way they manage the heavy metal in surrounding polluted soils, although each species have a different capacity to manage each heavy metal.
Gould WA, QuiÃ±ones M, SolÃ³rzano M et al (2011) Protected natural areas of Puerto Rico. 1:24,000. IITF-rmap-02.RÃo Piedras: US Department Of Agriculture, Forest Service, International Institute Of Tropical Forestry.
DNER, Department of Natural and Environmental Resources of P.R. (2005) Puerto Rico's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy https://griffingroups.com/file/view/358386/puerto-rico-comprehensive-wildlife-conservation-strategy-2005.
BauzÃ¡-Ortega J (2013) La ciÃ©naga las Cucharillas: un tesoro ecolÃ³gico en el estuario de la bahÃa de San Juan. Perspectivas En Asuntos Ambientales. 2: 18-25.
Miller GL, Lugo AE (2009) General Technical Report (IITF-GTR-35) San Juan, PR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry.
Waite R, Burke L, Gray E et al (2014) Coastal Capital: Ecosystem Valuation for Decision Making in the Caribbean. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. http://www.wri.org/sites/default/files/coastal_capital_ecosystem_valuation_caribbean_guidebook_online.pdf
GonzÃ¡lez-Mendoza D, JuÃ¡rez OG, Cervantes DÃaz L (2008) Los elementos potencialmente tÃ³xicos en las plantas de manglar: una revisiÃ³n de los mecanismos de tolerancia involucrados. Interciencia. 33.
Maisto G, Manzo S, De Nicola F, Carotenuto R, Rocco A, Alfani A (2011) Assessment of the effects of Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb soil contamination by ecotoxicological tests. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 13: 3049-3056.
Lombardo A, Rocaglioni A, Bonani E et al (2010) Assessment and Validation of the CAESAR predictive model for biococentration factor in fish. Chemistry Central Journal 4(1) doi: 10.1186/1752-153X-4-S1-S1.
MejÃas CL, Musa JC, Otero J (2013) Exploratory evaluation of retranslocation and bioconcentration efficiency of heavy metals in three species of mangrove at Las Cucharillas Marsh, Puerto Rico. The Journal of Tropical Life Sciences. 3: 14-22.
Fernandes J, Henriques FS (1991) Biochemical, physiological, and structural effects of excess copper in plants. The Botanical Review. 57: 246-273.
Science Communication Unit (SCU), University of the West of England, Bristol (2013) Science for Environment Policy In-depth Report: Soil Contamination: Impacts on Human Health. Report produced for the European Commission DG Environment. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/IR5_en.pdf
Hammad DM (2011) Cu, Ni and Zn Phytoremediation and Translocation by Water Hyacinth Plant at Different Aquatic Environments. Australian journal of basic and applied sciences. 5: 11-22.
Mellem J, Baijnath H, Odhav B (2009) Translocation and accumulation of Cr, Hg, As, Pb, Cu and Ni by Amarranthus dubius (Amaranthaceae) from contaminated sites. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 44: 568-575.
Drexler J, Fisher N, Henningsen G et al (2003) Issue paper on the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of. US EPA https://archive.epa.gov/raf/web/pdf/bioavail_bioaccum_aug03.pdf
Birch GF, Olmos MA (2008) Sediment-bound heavy metals as indicators of human influence and biological risk in coastal water bodies. International council for the exploration of the sea. Journal Of Marine Science Oxford Journals. 65:1407-1413.
Otero, E. 2011. Estuarine Environmental Indicators for the San Juan Bay Estuary: Assessment of Sediment and Fish Tissue Contaminants. The San Juan Bay Estuary Program, USEPA, Region
Gupta S, Chakrabarti SK (2013) Mangroves-a potential phyto-remediator and useful bio-indicator against heavy metal toxicity. International Journal Of Bio-Resource & Stress Management. 4: 322-327.
Lotfinasabasl S, Gunale VR (2012) Studies on heavy metals bioaccumulation potential of mangrove species, Avicennia marina. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. 4: 4411-4421.
Tao Liu W, Cheng Ni Y, Xing Zhou Q (2013) Uptake of Heavy Metals by Trees: Prospects for Phytoremediation. Materials Science Forum. 743: 768-781.
MacFarlane GR (2002) Leaf biochemical parameters in Avicennia marina as potential biomarkers of heavy metals stress in estuarine ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 44: 244-256.
Azevedo R, Rodriguez E (2012) Phytotoxicity of mercury in plants: a review. Journal Of Botany. DOI:10.1155/2012/848614
Machado W, Gueiros BB, Lisboa-Filho SD, Lacerda LD (2005) Trace metal in mangrove seedlings: role of iron plaque formation. Wetlands Ecology and Management. 13: 199-206.
Pi N, Tam NFY, Wong MH (2011) Formation of iron plaque on mangrove roots receiving waste water and its role in immobilization of wastewater-borne pollutants. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 63: 402-411.
Lin P, Wang W (2001) Changes in the leaf composition, leaf mass and leaf area during leaf senescence in three species of mangroves. Ecological Engineering. 16: 415-424.
Chen M, Ma LQ, Harris WG (1999) Baseline concentrations of 15 trace elements in Florida surface soils. Journal Of Environmental Quality. 28: 1173-1181.
Conde C, Oliveira-Rodriguez F, Orgler de Moura D (1997) Long â€“ Term Assessment of oil Spill in a Mangrove Forest in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Mangrove Ecosystem Studies in Latin America and Africa, UNESCO.
Lacerda LD, Carvalho CE, Tanizaki KF, Ovalle AR, Rezande CE (1993) The biogeochemistry and trace metals distribution of mangroves rhizospheres. Biotropica. 25: 252-257.
Machado W, Silva-Filho EV, Oliveira RR, Lacerda LD (2002) Trace metal retention in mangrove ecosystems in Guanabara Bay, SE Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 44: 1277-1280.
Silva C, Silva A, Oliveira S (2006) Concentration stock and transport rate of heavy metals in a tropical red mangrove, Natal, Brazil. Marine Chemistry. 99: 2-11.
Wen-Jiao Z, Xiao-Yong C, Peng L (1997) Accumulation and biological cycling of heavy metal elements in Rhizophora stylosa mangroves in Yingluo Bay, China. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 159: 293-301.
Sthevan R, Krishnan TSR, Patterson J (2011) Preliminary survey on the heavy metal pollution in Punnakayal Estuary of Tuticorin Coast, Tamil Nadu, India. Global Journal of Environmental Research. 5: 89-96.
Jingchun L, Chongling Y, Macnair M et al (2006) Distribution and Speciation of Some Metals in Mangrove Sediments from Jiulong River Estuary, Peopleâ€™s Republic of China. Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 76: 815-822.
Kammaruzzaman BY, Rina SMZ, Akbar JB, Siti Waznah A (2012) Accumulation and distribution of Lead and Copper in Avicennia marina and Rhizophora apiculata from Balok Mangrove Forest, Pahang, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana. 20: 555-560.
Lugo AE (1999) Mangrove Forests: A tough system to invade but an easy one to rehabilitate. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 37: 427-430.
Foroughbakhch R, Caspedes A, Alvarado M et al (2004) Aspectos ecolÃ³gicos de los manglares y su potencial como fitorremediadores en el golfo de Mexico. Ciencia UANL. 7.
Da Souza I, Marques Bonomo M, Morozesk M et al (2014) Adaptive plasticity of Laguncularia racemosa in response to different environmental conditions: integrating chemical and biological data by chemometrics. Ecotoxicology. 23: 335-348.
Usman ARA, Alkredaa RS, Al-Wabel MI (2013) Heavy metal contamination in sediments and mangroves from the coast of Res Sea: Avicennia marina as potential metal bioaccumulator. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 97: 263-270.
Kumar NJI, Sajish PR, Kumar RN et al (2011) Bioaccumulation of Lead, Zinc and Cadmium in Avicennia marina Mangrove Ecosystem near Namada Estuary in Vamleshwar, West Coast of Gujarat, India. Journal of Int. Environmental Application and Science. 6: 8-13.
Naidoo G, Hiralal T, Naidoo Y (2014) Ecophysiological Responses of the Mangrove Avicenna marina Trace Metal Contamination. Flora-Morphology Functional Ecology of Plants. 209: 63-72.
Huang GY, Wang YS (2010) Expression and characterization analysis of type 2 metallothionein from grey mangrove species (Avicennia marina) in response to metal stress. Aquatic Toxicology. 99: 86-92.
Miao S, Chen G, De Laune R, Jugsujinda A (2007) Partitioning and removal of Cd and Mn using a simulated mangrove wastewater treatment system. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. 42: 405-411.
Parvaresh H, Abedi Z, Farshchi P et al (2011) Bioavailability and concentration of heavy metals in the sediments and leaves of grey mangrove, Avicennia marina in Sirik Azini Creek, Iran. Biological Trace Element Research. 143: 1121-1130.
Rachman M, Rahman M, Chongling Y, Islam K (2011) Accumulation, distribution and toxicological effects induced by Cadmium on the development of mangrove plant Kandelia Candel(L). Contemporary Problems of Ecology. 4: 133-139.
Silva C, Lacerda L, Ovalle A, Rezende C (1998) The dynamics of heavy metals through litterfall and decomposition in a red mangrove forest. Mangrove and Salt Marshes. 2: 149-157.
Yuhong L, Atagana HI, Jingchun L et al (2013) cDNA sequence encoding metallothionein protein from Aegiceras corniculatum and its gene expression induced by Pb2+ and Cd2+ stresses. Environmental Monitoring Assessment. 185: 10201-10208.
Zhang F, Wang Y, Lou Z, Dong J (2007) Effect of heavy metal stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of two mangrove plant seedlings (Kandalia Candel and Brugueira gymnorrhiza). Chemosphere. 67: 44-50.
The work has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or part of a published lecture or thesis) and it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. When the manuscript is accepted for publication in this journal, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.
Journal of Tropical Life Science is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License