Inoculums Preparation and Detoxification Process in Monascus Fermented Rice Production

Marlia Singgih Wibowo, Nur Azizah Fitria, Sri Priatni


Monascus fermented rice (MFR), or angkak are well known for their ability to produce monacolin K, a statin compound that potential as a cholesterol-lowering agent. The objective of the research is to study the inoculum preparation and detoxification process in MFR production. In this study, the inoculum was prepared by cultivated M. purpureus HD001 in YMP, YES, and MSG medium. Rice was inoculated with 10% of inoculum and incubated at 30oC, for 14 days. The growth rate and moisture content of MFR were evaluated in the period from 0 to 14th day. The dried MFR was extracted with ethanol 95%, and the ratio of monacolin K/citrinin was estimated by measuring the absorbances of extract at λ238 (monacolin K) and λ500 (citrinin). MFR was detoxified by 0.1% v/v of H2O2, at room temperature for one hour. Monacolin K and citrinin content in MFR extract was analyzed by HPLC. Results showed that the growth of Monascus purpureus HD001 on rice which inoculated by MSG inoculum was faster than YES and YMP inoculum. Maximum growth of M.purpureus occurs on the 8th day. The highest moisture content also enerated by MFR which inoculated by MSG inoculum. Maximum absorbance of monacolin K (l238) of MFR which inoculated by MSG inoculum was obtained on the 8th day. HPLC data showed that detoxification of MFR with 0.1% H2O2 was able to reduce citrinin 58.45% and monacolin K 22.04%. After treatment with 0.1% H2O2, ratio of monacolin K/citrinin in MFR samples was increased 1.87 times when compared to before treatment.


Monascus, monakolin-K, citrinin, cholesterol

Full Text:



Chayawat J, Jareonkitmongkol S, Songsasen A and Yongsmith B (2009) Pigments and anti-cholesterol agent production by Monascus kaoliang KB9 and its colour mutants in rice solid cultures, Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 43: 696– 702.

Lee CL, Wang JJ, Kuo SL, Pan TM (2006) Monascus fermentation

of dioscorea for increasing the production of cholesterol-lowering agen monacolin K and antiinflammation agent monascin. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72: 1254–1262.

Sayyad SA, Panda BP, Javed S and Ali M (2007) Screening of nutrient parameters for lovastatin by monascus purpureus mtcc 369 under submerged fermentation using placket burman design. Research Journal of Microbiology 2 (7): 601-605, ISSN 1816 4935.

Pattanagul P, Pinthong R, Phianmongkhol A, Leksawasdi N (2007) Review of angkak production (Monascus purpureus). Chiang Mai J. Sci. 34(3): 319-328.

Chen E, Hu X (2005) Study on red fermented rice with high concentration of monacolin K and low concentration of citrinin. International Journal of Food Microbiology 103: 331– 337.

Iwahashi H, Kitagawa E, Suzuki Y et al (2007) Evaluation of toxicity of the mycotoxin citrinin using yeast ORF DNA microarray and oligo DNA microarray. BMC Genomics 8:95.

Chung CC, Chen HH, Hsieh PC (2008) Optimization of the Monascus purpureus fermentation process based on multiple performance characteristics. Journal of Grey System 11(2): 85-96.

Xu G, Yue C, Yun C et al (2005) Production of monacolin K in solid state fermentation of Monascus 9901 that does not produce citrinin. Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education. www.agriqua.-

Carvalho JC, Oishi BO, Woiciechowski AL et al (2007) Effect of substrates on the production of Monascus biopigments by solid-state fermentation and pigment extraction using different solvents. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 6: 194-199.

Prince I, Tribe D (1990) Fermentation Technology ASEAN- Australian Biotechnology Project. Bangkok 2.2-2.5, 3.2, 3.15

Udeh HO, Kgatla TE (2013) Review: Role of magnesium ions on yeast performance during very high gravity fermentation. J. Brewing and Distilling 4(2): 19-45.

Maurya DP, Singh D, Pratap D, Maurya JP (2012) Optimization

of solid state fermentation conditions for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei J. Environ. Biol. 33: 5-8.

Lee CL, Chen WP, Wang JJ, Pan TM (2007) A simple and rapid approach for removing citrinin while retaining monacolin k in red mold rice. J. Agric. Food Chem 55: 11101–11108.

Sun JL, Zou X, Liu AY, Xiao TF (2011) Eleveated yield of monacolin K in Monascus purpureus by fungal elicitor and mutagenesis of UV and LiCl. Biomedical Journals 44: 377-382.

Shimizu T, Kinoshita H, Ishihara S et al (2005) Polyketide synthase gene responsible for citrinin biosynthesis in Monascus purpureus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71(7): 3453-3457.

Schuster R, Schulenberg-Schell H (2000) A new approach to lower limits of detection and easy spectral analysis Applications of fluorescence detection in liquid chromatography. Agilent Technologies.

Fouler SG, Trivedi AB, Kitabatake N (1994) Detoxification of citrinin and ochratoxin A by hydrogen peroxide. Journal of AOAC International 77: 631-637.

Inayah I, Wibowo MS, Julianti E (2013) Citrinin degradation

in liquid fermentation broth of Monascus purpureus by hydrogen peroxide. Jurnal Matematika & Sains 18 (3): 93-98.

Zaki MM, El-Midany SA, Shaheen HM, Rizzi L (2012) Mycotoxins in animals: Occurrence, effects, prevention and management. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences 4(1): 13-28.

Pascual-Ahuir A, Vanacloig-Pedros E, Proft M (2014) Toxicity mechanisms of the food contaminant citrinin. Application of a Quantitative Yeast Model. Nutrients 6: 2077-2087.


Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Tropical Life Science