A Preliminary Survey on Geospatial Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Found in Different Urban and Rural Locations of Southern West Bengal, India

Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in Southern West Bengal, India


  • Anasuya Majumdar Department of Zoology Vidyasagar College for Women, India
  • Amit Mahata Department of Zoology Vidyasagar College for Women, India
  • Shampa Bag Department of Zoology Ananda Mohan College, India




Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Southern West Bengal, distribution, rural, urban


Aedes mosquitoes are globally known to transmit various arboviral diseases including Dengue fever. Historically considered an urban disease, Dengue fever has been reported in rural areas of different countries also. Two important species, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus, are rapidly spreading and invading new locations in India and risking human health more frequently each year. Since vector control has been proven to be the most effective measure to prevent such disease, knowing the vectors more, would help design successful methods to fight against the disease. In this survey, a cross-sectional inspection was conducted to look for the existence of Aedes spp. at 420 locations including urban and rural areas of 15 districts in Southern West Bengal, India, Morphological identification of collected specimens, comparative analyses of vector distribution and their breeding habitats, between districts, rural and urban locations as well as between different physiographic regions in this area were performed. The study revealed that sixty-four percent of the urban locations inspected and 22% of the rural locations inspected were positive for Aedes spp. Despite the region’s physiographic, climatic, and anthropogenic diversity, the districts shared a similar pattern of species distribution - A. albopictus was found in both rural and urban locations of all the districts while A. aegypti was observed in only urban locations of thirteen districts.  In some locations, both species were found to be co-existing in the same habitat containers. Mean larval density and mean container index were both higher in urban habitats than in rural areas though few rural locations showed significantly high density of larval population. The current findings of this survey thus provide a comprehensive picture of Aedes distribution in the said area and may in turn act as a foundation for more effective surveillance to characterize these vectors and to identify potential dengue outbreak hotspots in Southern West Bengal.


Halstead SB (1980) Dengue hemorrhagic fever–public health problem and a field for research. Bul-letin of the World Health Organization 58: 1–21. https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/261989.

Gubler DJ (1998) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 11: 480–496, doi: 10.1128/CMR.11.3.480.

WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia. (2011). Comprehensive Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever, Revised and Expanded Edition. New Delhi: World Health Organisation South East Asia Regional Office. https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/20489.

Das M, Gopalakrishnan R, Kumar D, Gayan J, Baruah I, Veer V (2014) Spatiotemporal distribution of den-gue vectors & identification of high-risk zones in dis-trict Sonitpur, Assam, India. The Indian Journal of Medical research 140 (2): 278-284. PMID: 25297362 PMCID: PMC4216503.

Kalra NL, Kaul SM, Rastogi RM (‎1997) Prevalence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus-Vectors of Den-gue Haemorrhagic Fever in North, North-East and Central India. Dengue Bulletin 21:84-92; WHO Re-gional Office for South-East Asia. https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/148533.

Ghosh A, Dar L (2015) Dengue vaccines: challenges, development, current status and prospects. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 33 (1): 3-15. doi: 10.4103/0255-0857.148369.

Powell JR, Tabachnick WJ (2013) History of domesti-cation and spread of Aedes aegypti-A Review. Memo-rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 108: 11-7. doi: 10.1590/0074-0276130395.

Morrison AC, Zielinski-Gutierrez E, Scott TW, Rosen-berg R (2008) Defining challenges and proposing solutions for control of the virus vector Aedes ae-gypti. PLoS. Medicine 5 (3): e68. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050068.

Wattal B L (1964) A note on Aedes survey of Calcut-ta following an outbreak of haemorrhagic fever in July 1963. Indian Journal of Medical Research 52:710-718. PMID: 14195512.

Faraji A, Egizi A, Fonseca DM (2014) Comparative host feeding patterns of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in urban and suburban Northeast-ern USA and implications for disease transmission. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8(8): e3037. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003037.

Paupy C, Delatte H, Bagny L et al. (2009) Aedes al-bopictus, an arbovirus vector: from the darkness to the light. Microbes and Infection 11(14–15):1177–85. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2009.05.005.

Vong S, Khieu V, Glass O et al. (2010) Dengue inci-dence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4 (11), doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000903.

Biswas DK, Bhunia R., Basu M (2014) Dengue fever in a rural area of West Bengal, India, 2012: an out-break investigation. WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health | January-March 2014 | 3 (1): 46-50. doi:10.4103/2224-3151.206883.

Ramsfield T, Bentz B, Faccoli M et al. (2016) Forest health in a changing world: effects of globalization and climate change on forest insect and pathogen impacts. Forestry 89 (3):245-52, doi: 10.1093/forestry/cpw018.

Shil P, Kothawale DR, Sudeep AB (2018) Rainfall and Chikungunya incidences in India during 2010-2014. Virusdisease 29 (1):46-53. doi: 10.1007/s13337-018-0428-6.

World Health Organization. Dengue vaccine: WHO position paper–September 2018; Weekly Epidemio-logical Record. 93:457–476. http://www.who.int/wer

National centre for Vector Bourne Diseases Control web

site: https://nvbdcp.gov.in

Focks DA, Alexander N (2006) Multicountry study of Aedes aegypti pupal productivity survey methodolo-gy: Findings and recommendations. Geneva: WHO; TDR/IRM/DEN/06.1. https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/170461

World Health Organization. 2012. Accelerating work to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases—a roadmap for implementation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. p. 22. WHO/HTM/NTD/2012.1 https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/70809

Aryaprema V, Xu R (2019) Breteau index as a prom-ising early warning signal for dengue fever out-breaks in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka. Acta Trop-ica.199:105155, doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105155

Banerjee S, Aditya G, Saha GK (2013) Pupal produc-tivity of dengue vectors in Kolkata, India: implica-tions for vector management Indian Journal of Medi-cal Research 137: 549-559. doi: 10.4103/0971-5916.176632

Indian meteriological department website – https://mausam.imd.gov.in

Geological Survey of India website – https://gsi.gov.in and shuttle radar topography mis-sion data, 2000.

Chatterjee S, Chakraborty A, Sinha SK (2015) Spa-tial distribution & physicochemical characterization of the breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti in & around Kolkata, West Bengal, Indian Journal of Med-ical Research.142. doi: 10.4103/0971-5916.176631

Soni M, Bhattacharjee CK, Khan SA, Dutta P (2018) DNA barcoding as a complementary approach for species identification from dengue endemic regions of North East India. International Journal of Mosqui-to Research 5(1): 46-52. http://www.dipterajournal.com/pdf/2018/vol5issue1/PartA/4-6-8-327.pdf

Biswas M, Banerjee PK (2016) Studies on morpho-logical variations of Aedes albopictus in some areas of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal. International Jour-nal of Mosquito Research 3(6): 06-10.

Sanyal S, Chattopadhyay S, Paul A et al. (2021) Sea-sonal and spatial abundance of Aedes mosquito de-pending upon the different kinds of meteorological parameter in five different districts of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Mosquito Research 8 (6):07-12. https://www.dipterajournal.com/pdf/2021/vol8issue6/PartA/8-5-11-758.pdf

Mahata A, Majumdar A, Bag S (2022) Physicochemi-cal Characterization of the Breeding Habitats of Ae-des Mosquito Species in the Southern Districts of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 48(4): 409-421. doi: 10.55863/ijees.2022.0409

2011 Census of India, Govt. of India website; https://censusindia.gov.in

Health and family welfare department, West Bengal website https://www.wbhealth.gov.in

Sharma RS (1990) Breeding habitats and natural infestations of anopheline larvae in Gurgaon urban, India. Mosquito Borne Diseases Bulletin. 7: 99-103.

Service WM (1993) Mosquito ecology: field sampling methods. London: Chapman and Hall; p. 1-988. doi: 10.1007/978-94-011-1868-2

Barraud PJ (1934) The fauna of British India includ-ing Ceylon and Burma (Diptera: Culicidae), Tribes Megarhinini and Culicini, Vol 5, London: Taylor and Francis;1–452. http://cslrepository.nvli.in//handle/123456789/8119

Christophers SR (1933) The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. Vol. IV. Family Culicidae. Tribe Anophelini. pp.vi + 371. http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/handle/2015/19252

Overgaard HJ, Olano VA, Jaramillo JF, Matiz MI, Sar-miento D, Stenstro¨m TA & Alexander N (2017) A cross-sectional survey of Aedes aegypti immature abundance in urban and rural household containers in central Colombia. Parasites and Vectors [Internet]. 10(1):356. doi: 10.1186/s13071- 017-2295-1 .

Tandon N, Raychoudhury S (1998) Reinvasion of Calcutta city by Aedes albopictus: the proven vector of dengue in suburban areas. Indian Journal of Pub-lic Health. 42 (1): 24-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10389503

Gratz NG (2004) Critical review of the vector status of Aedes albopictus. Medical and Veterinary Ento-mology. 18(3):215-27. doi: 10.1111/j.0269-283X.2004.00513.x

Tewari SC, Thenmozhi V, Katholi CR, Manavalan R, Munirathinam A, Gajanana A (2004) Dengue vector prevalence and virus infection in a rural area in south India. Tropical Medicine and International Health. volume 9 no 4: 499–507. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01103.x

Devi S, Kaura T, Kaur J et al. (2020) Prevalence of dengue vectors, larval breeding habitats, Stegomyia indices and their correlation with dengue cases in urban and rural areas of Punjab, India. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. 57:176-181. doi: 10.4103/0972-9062.313966

Chan KL, Ho BC, Chan YC (1971) Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore City. 2. Larval habitats. Bulletin of World Health Organiza-tion. 44(5):629-33. PMID: 5316746 PMCID: PMC2427856

Ishak H, Miyagi I, Toma T, Kamimura K (1997) Breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes. al-bopictus (Skuse) in villages of Barru, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medi-cine and Public Health. 28 (4):844-50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9656413

Eisen L, Monaghan AJ, Lozano-Fuentes S, Steinhoff DF, Hayden MH, Bieringer PE (2014) The impact of temperature on the bionomics of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, with special reference to the cool geographic range margins. Journal of Medical Entomology. 51(3):496–516. doi: 10.1603/me13214

Marinho RA, Beserra EB, Bezerra-Gusmao MA, Porto Vde S, Olinda R., Dos Santos CA (2016) Effects of temperature on the life cycle, expansion, and dis-persion of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in three cities in Paraiba, Brazil. Journal of Vector Ecology 41(1):1–10. 81. doi: 10.1111/jvec.12187.

Ferreira PG, Tesla B, Horácio ECA, Nahum LA, Brind-ley MA, de Oliveira Mendes TA and Murdock CC (2020) Temperature Dramatically Shapes Mosquito Gene Expression with Consequences for Mosquito–Zika Virus Interactions. Frontiers in Microbiology. 11:901. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00901.

Lounibos LP, Bargielowski I, Carrasquilla MC, Nishi-mura N (2016) Coexistence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Peninsular Florida Two Decades After Competitive Displace-ments. Journal of Medical Entomology 53 (6): 1385-1390,

doi: 10.1093/jme/tjw122

Gilotra SK, Rozeboom LE and Bhattacharya NC (1967) Observations on Possible Competitive Dis-placement between Populations of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse in Calcutta* Bulletin of Orgqnisation mondiale de la Sante Bulle-tin of the Worlld Health Organization 37: 437-44. https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/266354