Chemical Compounds and Antibacterial Activity of Thymus Vulgaris Leaves’ Ethanolic Extract Against Salmonella typhimurium

Thymus vulgaris Against Salmonella typhimurium


  • Emad Khaleefah Abousouh Doctoral Program in Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  • Agustina Tri Endharti Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  • Sanarto Santoso Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang
  • Dewi Santosaningsih Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya/Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital



Antibacterial activity, Carvacrol, Minimal inhibitory concentration, Sal-monella, Thymol, Thymus vulgaris


Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella is an important pathogen that causes life-threatening bloodstream infections. Antibiotic resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella has emerged as a result of the increasing use of antibiotics; therefore, an alternative source of therapeutic agents is required. This study aimed to investigate the active compound and antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris leaves’ ethanolic extract against Salmonella typhimurium. Thin-layer chromatography was performed to identify the active compound in the ethanolic extract of T. vulgaris leaves. The antibiotic effect of the extract was carried out by agar dilution assay using the following concentrations: 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, 12.5%, and 15.0% (w/v). Thymol and carvacrol were detected in the thin-layer chromatography. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract was 10.0% (w/v). In conclusion, T. vulgaris leaves’ ethanolic extract demonstrated antimicrobial activity against S. typhimurium. Further investigation is required to analyze the role of thymol and carvacrol as active compounds against S. typhimurium.


Chen HM, Wang Y, Su LH et al. (2013) Nontyphoid Salmonella infection: Microbiology, clinical features, and antimicrobial therapy. Pediatrics and Neonatol-ogy 54: 147–52. doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2013.01.010.

Tack B, Vanaenrode J, Verbakel JY et al. (2020) In-vasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review on antimicrobial resistance and treatment 18 (212): 1-22. doi: 10.1186/s12916-020-01652-4.

Balasubramanian R, Im J, Lee JS et al. (2019) The global burden and epidemiology of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 15 (6): 1421–6. doi: 10.1080%2F21645515. 2018.1504717.

Gilchrist JJ, MacLennan CA (2019) Invasive Nonty-phoidal Salmonella Disease in Africa. EcoSal Plus 8(2): 10-1128. doi: 10.1128/ecosalplus.esp-0007-2018.

Feasey NA, Dougan G, Kingsley RA et al. (2012) In-vasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease: an emerg-ing and neglected tropical disease in Africa. Lancet 379 (9835): 2489–99. doi: 10.1016%2FS0140-6736(11)61752-2.

Piccini G, Montomoli E (2020). Pathogenic signature of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella in Africa: impli-cations for vaccine development. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 16 (9): 2056–71. doi: 10.1080%2F21645515.2020.1785791.

Reddy EA, Shaw AV, Crump JA (2010) Community-acquired bloodstream infections in Africa: a system-atic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infectious Dis-ease 10(6): 417–32. doi: 10.1016/s1473-3099(10)70072-4.

Ao TT, Feasey NA, Gordon MA et al. (2015) Global burden of invasive nontyphoidal salmonella disease, 2010. Emerging Infectious Disease 21 (6): 941–9. doi: 10.3201/eid2106.140999.

Sinwat N, Angkittitrakul S, Coulson KF et al. (2016) High prevalence and molecular characteristics of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in pigs,pork and hu-mans in Thailand and Laos provinces. Journal of Medical Microbiol. 65 (10): 1182–93. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000339.

Tadesse G, Tessema TS, Beyene G et al. (2018) Mo-lecular epidemiology of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 13 (2): e0192575. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192575.

Gordon MA, Graham SM, Walsh AL et al. (2008) Epidemics of invasive Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis and S. enterica serovar typhimurium in-fection associated with multidrug resistance among adults and children in Malawi. Clinical Infectious Diseases 46 (7): 963–9. doi: 10.1086/529146.

Amhamdi H, Wathelet JP, Ankit M et al. (2009) Chemical composition of the essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco. Interna-tional Journal of Agriculture and Biology 11:205–8.

Fani M, Kohanteb J (2017) In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil Against Ma-jor Oral Pathogens. Journal Evidence-Based Com-plementary and Alternative Medicine. 22 (4): 660–6. doi: 10.1177/215658721770077.

Jianu C (2014) Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemi-cal composition and antimicrobial activity. Journal of Medicine and Life 7 (3):56-60.

Sokovicx́ M, Glamočlija J, Marin PD (2010) Antibac-terial effects of the essential oils of commonly con-sumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model. Mol-ecules 15 (11): 7532–46. doi: 10.3390/molecules15117532.

Micucci M, Protti M, Aldini R et al. (2020) Thymus vulgaris l. Essential oil solid formulation: Chemical profile and spasmolytic and antimicrobial effects. Bi-omolecules 10 (6): 860. doi: 10.3390%2Fbiom10060860.

Okonkwo CO, Ohaeri OC (2019) Comparative Study of Steam Distillation and Soxhlet for the Extraction of Botanical Oils. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences 13 (1): 62–9.doi: 10.3923/ajbs.2020.62.69.

Ulhaq ZS, Hendyatama TH, Hameed F et al. (2021) Antibacterial activity of Citrus hystrix toward Salmo-nella spp. infection. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 39 (6): 283–6. doi: 10.1016/j.eimc.2020.05.0.

Valle DL, Puzon JJM, Cabrera EC (2016) Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography and Gas Chroma-tography-Mass Spectrometry of Antimicrobial Leaf Extracts from Philippine Piper betle L. against Multi-drug-Resistant Bacteria. Evidence-Based Comple-mentary and Alternative Medicine 2016: 1–7. doi: 10.1155/2016/4976791.

Wahyuni D, Susanti DA, Elmaghfuroh DR (2019) The Physical Properties and Phytochemical Explora-tion of Bioinsecticide Granules Mixed Betel Leaf Ex-tract (Piper betle) And Srikaya Seed Extract (An-nonasquamosa). International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research 8 (6): 242-247.

Wagner H, Blandt S (2001) Plant Drug Analysis: A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. Springer.

Forbes BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS (2007) Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology. 12th ed. Mis-souri: Mosby Elsevier. 87–213.

Singh A, Bra C, Jeet D et al. (2019) Antibiotic Re-sistance in E. coli Isolated from Poultry. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Scienc-es 8 (10): 89–94. doi: 2F10.20546%2Fijcmas.2019.810.010.

Samein NM, Kamel FH (2019) Extraction of Com-pounds from Thyme Leaves and Thier Antimicrobial Activity. Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal (DASJ) 11(2): 18-24. doi:

Memar MY, Raei P, Alizadeh N (2017) Carvacrol and thymol: strong antimicrobial agents against resistant isolates. Reviews in Medical Microbiology 28 (2): 63–8. doi: 10.1097/MRM.0000000000000100.

Palaniappan K, Holley RA (2010) Use of natural antimicrobials to increase antibiotic susceptibility of drug resistant bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2010 140(2–3): 164–8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.04.001.

Qi Y, Zhao W, Wang T, et al. (2020) Proteomic anal-ysis of the antimicrobial effects of sublethal concen-trations of thymol on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnol-ogy 104 (8): 3493–505. doi: 10.1007/s00253-020-10390-9.

de Almeida de Souza GH, dos Santos et al. (2021) In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity assays of car-vacrol: A candidate for development of innovative treatments against KPC-producing Klebsiella pneu-moniae. PLoS One 16 (2): e0246003. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246003.