The Effect of VP3 Biofertilizer and Compost Application on Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius) and Green Spinach (Amaranthus viridis) Yield and Quality

The Effect of VP3 Biofertilizer and Compost Application on Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius) and Green Spinach (Amaranthus viridis) Yield and Quality


  • Novi Arfarita Faculty of Agriculture, University of Islam Malang
  • Masyhuri Masyhuri Agribusiness Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture University of Islam Malang 65144, Indonesia
  • Sugiarto Sugiarto Agrotechnology Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture University of Islam Malang 65144, Indonesia
  • Takaya Higuchi Division of Environmental Science and Engineering , Graduate School of Science and Engineering Yamaguchi University Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan



Compost, Green spinach, Red Spinach, VP3 biofertilizer, Yield


VP3 biofertilizer is a biological agent that has been formulated in previous research. It was applied once with compost and has been tested on red spinach and green spinach in the greenhouse to see its effect on yield and quality (chlorophyll content, anthocyanins, and shelf life at room temperature). Red spinach and green spinach had shown a significantly different growth response to applying biological fertilizers. VP3 biofertilizer with compost had the highest yield effect but was not significantly different from the recommended Nitrogen Phosphate Potassium (NPK) and Effective Microorganism4(EM4) treatment with compost. The application of VP3 Biofertilizer with NPK fertilizer showed a darker color (higher chlorophyll and anthocyanin content) than the application of biological fertilizers, but the values ​​were not significantly different. The application of VP3 biofertilizer with compost affected the shelf life of both red spinach and green spinach. Spinach plants remained fresh at room temperature for three days of storage, while the other treatments lost freshness on the 3rd day after harvesting and even loosened the leaf on the 4th day after harvesting. Therefore, VP3 biofertilizer has potential to increase the yield and quality of spinach and other vegetable crops. The addition of the application period of VP3 biofertilizer needs to be carried out and observed to increase the yield and quality of plants further. Canonical Variate Analyses (CVA) can distinguish the grouping of treatments based on the selected parameter. Biplot assessment provides information on the strong relationship between the yield of green spinach and red spinach and a number of leaves, leaf area, and plant height. The application of VP3 biofertilizer with compost had a significant effect on the yield and quality and produced different effects between treatments, both in the case of green spinach and red spinach.


Mezuan, Handayani IP, Inoriah E (2002) Application of biological fertilizer formulations for upland rice cultivation. Journal Agricultural science Indonesia 4 (1): 27-34.

Arfarita N, Lestari MW, Murwani I, Higuchi T (2017) Isolation of indigenous bacteria of phosphate solubilizing from green bean rhizospheres. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 4 (3): 845-851. doi: 10.15243/jdmlm.2017.043.845.

Hartatik AS (2017) Effect of liquid formulation of biofertilizer from vermiwash carrier on indigenous bacteria viability and its test on vima-1 mung bean germination. Thesis. University of Islam Malang, Faculty of Agriculture.

Arfarita N, Hidayati N, Rosyidah A et al. (2016) Exploration of indigenous soil bacteria producing-exopolysaccharides for stabilizing of aggregates land potential as biofertilizer. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 4 (1): 697-702. doi: 10.15243/jdmlm.2016.041.697.

Gudeta K, Julka JM, Kumar A et al. (2021). Vermiwash: An agent of disease and pest control in soil, a review. Heliyon 7 (3): e06434. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06434.

Saraswati RT, Prihatini, Hastuti RD (2004) Microbial fertilizer technology to improve fertilization efficiency and sustainability of rice field production systems. In: Fahmuddin A, eds. Rice Fields and Management Technology. Bogor, Centre for soil research and development and agroclimatic. 169-189.

Franjo N, Katarina P, Zdenko L (2021). Microbiological activities in the composting process: A review. COLUMELLA–Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 8 (2): 41-53.

Chaudhary P, Singh S, Chaudhary A et al. (2022) Overview of biofertilizers in crop production and stress management for sustainable agriculture. Frontier Plant Science 23 (13): 930340. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.930340.

Amalia C, Giulia C, Scrocco C et al. (2008) Influence of growing periods on the quality of baby spinach leaves at harvest and during storage as minimally processed produce. Postharvest Biology and Technology 50: 190-196. doi: 10.1016/ j. post harv bio. 2008.04. 003.

Mudau AR, Nkomo MM, Soundy P et al. (2015) Influence of Postharvest Storage Temperature and Duration on Quality of Baby Spinach. Hort Technology hortte 25 (5): 665-670.

Kakade A, More P, Jadhav S, Bhosle V (2015) Shelf-life extension of fresh-cut spinach. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology. IJAEB: 8(3): 609-614. doi: 10.5958/2230-732X.2015.00067.4.

William M, Kristanto J, Sampurna J et al. (2019) Expert System for Measuring the Level of Spinach Freshness using Certainty Factor Method. doi: 10.5220/0009909703190324 In Proceedings of the International Conferences on Information System and Technology (CONRIST 2019), pages 319-324 ISBN: 978-989-758-453-4.

Parwada C, Chigiya V, Ngezimana W, Chipomho J (2020) Growth and Performance of Baby Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Grown under Different Organic Fertilizers. Hindawi. International Journal of Agronomy. doi: 10.1155/2020/8843906.

Raksun A, Merta IW, Mertha IG, Ilhamdi L (2022) The effect of Vermicompost and NPK fertilizer on the growth of Spinach (Amaranthus tricolor). Journal Pijar MIPA 17(5): 691-695. doi: 10.29303/jpm.v17i5.3464.

Hedges LJ, Lister CE (2007) Crop & Food Research Confidential Report No. 1928 Nutritional attributes of spinach, silver beet and eggplant. June 2007.

Lasya CS (2022) Spinach and its health benefits: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal 2022 SP-11 (8): 1232-1239.

Akubugwo IE, Obasi NA, Chinyere GC, Ugbogu AE (2007) Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves from Afikpo, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 6 (24): 2833–2839. doi: 10.5897/AJB2007.000-2452.

Santiago-Saenz YO, Hernandez-Fuentes AD, Monroy-Torres R (2018) Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant characterization of three vegetables (Amaranthus hybridus L., Chenopodium berlandieri L., Portulaca oleracea L.) as potential sources of phytochemicals and bioactive compounds. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 12 (4): 2855-2864. doi: 10.1007/s11694-018-9900-7.

Chandrappa H, Rajashekhar FB, Ranjitha et al. (2020) Simple fabrication of PVA-ATE (Amaranthus tricolor leaves extract) polymer bio composites: an efficient UV-Shielding material for organisms in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Optical Materials 109 (9): 109-119. doi: 10.1016/j.optimal.2020.110204.

Peter K, Gandhi P (2017) Rediscovering the therapeutic potential of Amaranthus species: a review. Egyptian Journal Basic and Applied Sciences 4 (3): 196 – 205. doi: 10.1016/j.ejbas.2017.05.001.

Cai Y, Sun M, Corke H (2003) Antioxidant activity of betalains from plants of the amaranthaceae. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (8): 2288–2294. doi: 10.1021/jf030045u.

Ohshiro M, Amzad H, Ichiro N et al. (2016) Effects of soil types and fertilizers on growth, yield, and quality of edible Amaranthus tricolor lines in Okinawa, Japan. Plant Production Science 19 (1): 61-72. doi: 10.1080/1343943X.2015.1128087.

Simanjuntak A, Lahay RR, Purba E (2013) Response of growth and production of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) to application of NPK fertilizer and coffee rind compost. Online Journal of Agrotechnology 1 (3): 362-373. 10.32734/jaet.v1i3.2273.

Liu E, Yan C, Mei X et al. (2010) Long-term effect of chemical fertilizer, straw, and manure on soil chemical and biological properties in northwest China. Geoderma 158 (2010): 173-180. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.04.029.

Sanni KO (2016) Effect of compost, cow dung and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer on growth and yield performance of amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus). International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research 2 (3): 76–82. doi: 10.7439/ijasr.

Dlamini SN, Masarirambi MT, Wahome PK, Oseni TO (2020) The effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of Amaranthus (Amaranthus hybridus L.) grown in a lath house. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research 12 (1): 1–10. doi: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v12i130068.

Hidayah WN, Murwani I, Arfarita N (2020) Effect of application of VP3 biological fertilizer with compost compared with NPK fertilizer on green beans (Vigna radiata L.) production and soil bacterial viability. Journal Agricultural Science 4 (1): 62-74.

Herlina SM, Aswita D (2019) Economic Value from the Household Environment Using EM4 Addition of Compost Solid Fertilizer in Banda Aceh. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506. 012015. 1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology

Mendelova A, Mendel L, Czako P, Marecek J (2014) Tracking changes in chlorophyll and carotenoids in the production process of frozen spinach purée. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Science 3 (3): 263–266.

Sheheta WA, Sohail A, Alam T (2020) Extraction and estimation of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of some common fruits. Trends in Applied Sciences Research 15 (3): 179–186. doi: 10.3923/tasr.2020.179.186.

Le XT, Huynh MT et al. (2019) Optimization of total anthocyanin content, stability and antioxidant evaluation of the anthocyanin extract from Vietnamese Carissa Carandas L fruits. Processes 7 (7): 468. doi: 10.3390/pr7070468.

Abayomi OA, Adebayo OJ (2014) Effect of fertilizer types on the growth and yield of Amaranthus caudatus in Ilorin, Nigeria. Advances in Agriculture 2014 (1): 1–5. doi: 10.1155/2014/947062.

Chanda SC, Islam MR, Sarwar AKMG (2021) Organic matter decomposition and nutrient release from different dhaincha (Sesbania spp.) genotypes. The Journal of Agricultural Sciences 16 (2): 192-202. doi: 10.4038/jas.v16i2.9323.

Chaudary RM, Varma LR, More SG et al. (2018) Effect of biofertilizers and different sources of organic manures on growth parameters and yield attributes of amaranth (Amaranthus Spp.) Cv. Arka Suguna. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 6 (3): 166–171.

Vessey JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant and Soil 255 (2): 571-586. doi: 10.1023/A:1026037216893.

Tania N, Astina, Budi S (2012) Effect of application of biofertilizer on growth and yield of semi-corn on red yellow podzolic soil. Journal Sains of Agricultural Students 1 (1): 10–15. doi: 10.11111/jspe.v1i1.488.

Fitriatin BN, Tamara P, Mulyani O et al. (2018) Influence of biofertilizer and humic acid on NPK content and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch 3 (3): 20-27.

Rehaman S, El-Sheikh MA, Alfarhan AH, Ushani U (2021) Spectral studies of Amaranthus tristis Linn in bioremediated silk dyeing effluent with mixed biofertilizer inoculants. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28 (2): 1203-1212. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.057.

Setiawati T, Fitriyasari R, Titin S (2018) Growth of spinachvplant (Amaranthus tricolor L.) by application of kascing organic fertilizer and bamboo leaf litter mulch. Jurnal Ilmu Dasar 19 (1): 37–44. doi: 10.19184/jid.v19i1.5305.

Siswanti DU, Umah N (2021) Effect of biofertilizer and salinity on growth and chlorophyll content of Amaranthus tricolor L. Earth and Environmental Science 662 (1): 12-19. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/662/1/012019.

Begum K (2007) Effect of nitrogen and potassium on growth and yield of stem amaranth. Thesis. Agricultural University Bangladesh.

Setyorini D, Saraswati R, Anwar EK (2006) Compost. In: Simanungkalit RDM, Suriadikarta DA, Saraswati R et al., eds. Organic Fertilizer and Biofertilizer. Bogor, Center for agricultural land resources research and development agency for agricultural research and development. 11 – 40.

Fahruddin, Sulfahri (2019) Effect the molasses and EM4 bioactivators on consentrations of sugar of liquid organic fertilizer fermentation. BIOMA Jurnal Biologi Makassar 4 (2): 138-144. doi: 10.20956/bioma.v4i2.6905.

Weraduwage SM, Jin C, Fransisca CA, Morales A, Sean EW, Thomas DS (2015) The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in (Arabidopsis thaliana). Frontiers in Plant Science 6: 167 doi:10.3389/fpls.2015.00167.

Sondang, Y, Anty K., Siregar, R (2019) The Effect of Biofertilizer and Inorganic Fertilizer Toward the Nutrient Uptake in Maize Plant (Zea mays L.). Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology 3 (2): 213-225. doi: 10.32530/jaast.v3i2.121.

Hasanuzzaman M, Bhuyan MHMB, Nahar K et al. (2018) Potassium: A Vital Regulator of Plant Responses and Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses. Agronomy 8. doi: 10.3390/agronomy8030031.

Wang M, Zheng Q, Shen Q, Guo S (2013) The critical role of potassium in plant stress response. International Journal Molecular Science 14: 7370–7390.

Huda N, Hidayati S (2022) NPK Fertilizer Dosage Treatment on the Growth and Yield of Red Spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.). Journal of Agricultural Science and Agriculture Engineering 6 (1): 45 – 54. doi: 10.55173/agriscience.v6i1.85.

Hawkins BJ (2011) Seedling mineral nutrition, the root of the matter. National Proceedings Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations: August 24-26; Portland, Oregon. 87-97.

Hokmalipour S, Darbandi MH (2011) Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on chlorophyll content and other leaf indicate in three cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.). World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (12): 1780-1785.

Yamuangmorn S, Dell B, Rerkasem B, Prom-U-Thai C (2018) Applying nitrogen fertilizer increased anthocyanin in vegetative shoots but not in grain of purple rice genotypes. Science of Food and Agriculture 98 (12): 4527-4532. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8978.

Amelia DE, Kurniawan FY (2021) Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Level Comparisons of Pigeon Orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum) in Water and Light Stress Treatment. Indonesian Journal of Science and Education 5(1): 44-48. ISSN: 2598-5213, e-ISSN: 2598-5205. Doi: 10.31002/ijose.v5i1.2868.

Saharja, Sutarno (2009) Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum) in different fertilization treatments. Nusantara Bioscience. 1(1): 9-16.

Guy L, Gadi S (2023) LHC-like Proteins: The Guardians of Photosynthesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 24 (3): 2503. doi: 10.3390/ijms24032503

Sheng X, Watanabe A, Li A et al. (2019) Structural insight into light harvesting for photosystem II in green algae. Nature Plants 5 (12): 1320-1330. doi: 10.1038/s41477-019-0543-4.

Honda C, Moriya S (2018) Anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple fruit. Horticulture Journal 87: 305–314.

Kim M, Shim C, Kim Y et al. (2014) Effect of Chlorella vulgaris CHK0008 fertilization on enhancement of storage and freshness in organic strawberry and leaf vegetables. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 32 (6): 872-878. doi: 10.7235/hort.2014.14107.

Perez K, Mercado J, Soto-Valdez H (2003) Effect of storage temperature on the shelf life of hass avocado (Persea americana). Food Science and Technology International 10 (2): 73-77. doi: 10.1177/1082013204043763.

Marles RJ (2017) Mineral nutrient composition of vegetables, fruits and grains: the context of reports of apparent historical declines. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 56: 93-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2016.11.012.