Applications of X-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats for Human Identification: A Review

Applications of X-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats for Human Identification


  • Naji Arafat Mahat Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor
  • Aedrianee Reeza Alwi Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Faezah Mohd Salleh Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Seri Mirianti Ishar Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohammad Rahim Kamaluddin Psychology and Human Well Being Research Centre, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Mohd Radzniwan A. Rashid Family Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), Bandar Baru Nilai 71800, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia



Complex kinship, Forensic statistical parametes, Human identification, Population genetics, Short tandem repeats, X-chromosome


The forensic DNA profiling technique has tremendously contributed to forensic human identification, an important aspect in forensic investigations. In instances whereby comparison samples are unavailable, utilization of short tandem repeats of X chromosome (X-STRs) may prove useful to resolve complex kinship investigations involving missing persons and mass disasters. Despite such evidential values, the use of X-STRs during investigations remains scarce in many Southeast Asian countries including Malaysia, requiring concerted efforts for establishing forensic statistical support for its diverse populations (especially the admixture populations), standardizing core loci and procedure, improving the knowledge among practitioners as well as developing suitable standard operating procedure for incorporating X-STRs analysis in the overall DNA profiling framework. Hence, this review paper aims to highlight the developments, applications and population data of X-STRs, as well as its challenges and future insights for forensic casework.


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