Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaves of Chromolaena odorata and its Antioxidant Activity

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using C. odorata


  • Siti Ernieyanti Hashim
  • Angelle Patrick John



Antioxidant, Chromolaena odorata, Green synthesis, Silver nanoparticles


Harmful chemical waste is a serious problem being faced during the synthesis of nanoparticles due to the usage of hazardous chemicals. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of the leaves of C. odorata is cheap and environmentally friendly. This study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using C. odorata aqueous extract as reducing agent. The leaves of C. odorata was extracted by using cold maceration technique. The phytochemicals screening of leaves was done and positive results was showed for the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and phenolics in the leaves extract of C. odorata. The synthesized C. odorata extract mediated AgNPs was characterized using several techniques including UV-Visible spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The reduction of pure Ag (I) ions to Ag (0) was monitored using UV-Vis every one hour after 24 hours up to 28 hours and it showed an absorption band at 430-450 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was utilized to determine its particle size and the average particle size obtained was 27.3 nm. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by using C. odorata leaves aqueous extract was determined for its antioxidant activity by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The IC50 value obtained was 277.29 mg/ml. Based on the results obtained, it indicates that the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced using C. odorata leaves aqueous extract possessed antioxidant activity that can scavenge free radicals.

Author Biography

Angelle Patrick John

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru, Malaysia


Jalab J, Abdelwahed W, Kitaz A, Al-Kayali R (2021) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Acacia cyanophylla and its antibacterial activity. Heliyon 7 (9): 8033. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08033.

Roy A, Bulut O, Some S, Mandal AK, Yilmaz MD. (2019) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: biomolecule-nanoparticle organizations targeting antimicrobial activity RSC Advances 9 (5): 2673-2702. doi: 10.1039/C8RA08982E.

Bedlovičová Z, Strapáč I, Baláž M, Salayová A (2020) A Brief Overview on Antioxidant Activity Determination of Silver Nanoparticles. Molecules 25 (14): 3191-3215. doi: 10.3390/molecules25143191.

Eze FN, Jayeoye TJ (2021) Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed): A natural reservoir of bioactive compounds with potent anti-fibrillogenic, antioxidative, and cytocompatible properties. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 141: 111811. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111811.

Gudikandula K, Vadapally P, Singara CMA (2017) Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles from white rot fungi: Their characterization and antibacterial studies. OpenNano 2: 64-108. doi: 10.1016/j.onano.2017.07.002.

Peiris MMK, Fernando SSN, Jayaweera PMN, Arachchi DH, Guansekara TDCP (2018). Comparison of Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Selected Bacteria. Indian Journal of Microbiology 58 (3): 1-11. doi: 10.1007/s12088-018-0723-3.

Rajan R, Chandran K, Harper SL, Yun SI. Kalaichelvan PT (2015) Plant extract synthesized silver nanoparticles: an ongoing source of novel biocompatible materials. Industrial Crops and Products 70: 356-373. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.03.015.

Küp FÖ, Çoşkunçay S, Duman F (2020) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut): Evaluation of their antibacterial, antioxidant and drug release system activities. Materials Science and Engineering C 107: 110207. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110207.

Hashim SE, Sirat HM, Yen KH, Ismail IS, Matsuki SN (2015) Antioxidant and alpha glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Hornstedtia species of Malaysia. Natural Products Communication 10 (9): 1561-1563. doi: 10.1177/1934578x1501000919.

Vaisakh M, Pandey A (2012) The invasive weed with healing properties: A review on Chromolaena odorata. International journal of Pharmaceutical sciences and research 3 (1): 80-83. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.

Jayeoye TJ, Eze FN, Olatunde OO et al. (2021) Synthesis of silver and silver@zero valent iron nanoparticles using Chromolaena odorata phenolic extract for antibacterial activity and hydrogen peroxide detection. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 9 (3): 105224. doi: 10.1016/j.jece.2021.105224.

Venkateswarlu S, Yoon MY (2015) Surfactant-free green synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenethylcarbamodithioate: stable recyclable magnetic nanoparticles for the rapid and efficient removal of Hg(II) ions from water. Journal of Chemistry Society Dalton Transactions 44 (42): 18427-18437. doi: 10.1039/C5DT03155A.

Khan I, Saeed K, Khan I (2019) Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 12 (7): 908-931. doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.011.

Oladipo IC, Lateef A, Azeez MA et al. (2017) Green synthesis and antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles using cell-free extracts of Enterococcus species. Notul. Science and Biology 9 (2): 196-203. doi: 10.15835/nsb929938.

Vijayan R, Joseph S, Mathew B (2018) Indigofera tinctoria leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and assessment of their anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant and catalytic properties. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology 46 (4): 861-871. doi: 10.1080/21691401.2017.1345930.

Saliani M, Jalal R, Goharshadi KE (2015) Effects of pH and temperature on antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanofluid against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 8: 17115. DOI: 10.5812/jjm.17115.

Oliveira BDÁ, Rodrigues AC, Cardoso BMI et al. (2016) Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-quorum sensing activities of Rubus rosaefolius phenolic extract. Industrial Crops and Products 84: 59-66. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.01.037.

Siddiqi KS, Husen A, Rao RAK (2018) A review on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their biocidal properties. Journal of Nanobiotechnology 16 (1):14-32. doi: 10.1186/s12951-018-0334-5.

Güzel R, Erdal G (2018) Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Silver Nanoparticles - Fabrication, Characterization and Applications. Book Metrics Overview pp.1-20. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.75363.

Adelere IA, Aboyeji DO, Akindurodoye FO, Adabara NU. Babayi H (2020) Cashew Plant-Mediated Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of their Applications as Antimicrobial Additive for Consumer Care Products. Tanzania Journal of Science 46 (3):768-778. doi: 10.4314/tjs.v46i3.17.

Yanuar E, Sarwana W, Umam K et al. (2020) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Kirinyuh (Chromolaena odorata) leaf extract and their antibacterial activity against Vibrio sp. AIP Conference Proceedings 2243 (1): 020031. doi: 10.1063/5.0001639.