Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and nutrient composition of Chayote shoot (Sechium edule, Jacq. Swartz) from Kundasang, Sabah

Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content, and Nutrient Composition of Chayote Shoot (Sechium edule, Jacq. Swartz) from Kundasang, Sabah


  • Amir Husni Mohd Shariff Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
  • Nurrelyssa Azwa Hainusa Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
  • Nurul Huda Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition
  • Mona Zakaria Centre for Language and Pre-University Academic Development, International Islamic University (UIAM), Kuantan Campus, 25200, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Saeed Ullah Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Fahrul Huyop Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Roswanira Abdul Wahab Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia



Antioxidant, Chayote, Minerals, Proximate analyses, Total Phenolic Content


The chayote (Sechium edule) plant is believed to have significant nutritional importance due to its medicinal functions. It has been widely cultivated in Kundasang, Sabah for vegetable consumption. This study was carried out to determine the health benefits of this vegetable, especially the upper 3-foot of the shoot portion, in terms of antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and nutrient composition. It was divided equally into three parts, each a foot long and classified as: upper tier, middle tier and lower tier and amongst them, which tier gives rise to the best health benefits or will the traditional consumption of the whole 3-foot shoot be better for overall health well-being. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) and Folin Ciocalteu test were used to determine antioxidant activity and Total Phenolic Content (TPC), respectively. The results showed that the upper tier of shoot parts had the highest value for antioxidant activity, with the lowest of IC50 value (245.12 ± 9.24 μg/ml). The lower part of the plant also shows the highest value for TPC with a value of 355.66 ± 5.84 mg/g GAE. Minerals, Ca, Mg, P, Mo, Fe and Al were the highest value in the middle tier portion. The proximate analyses showed that the upper tier of the shoot has the highest fat, crude protein, and carbohydrate contents. Crude ash has the highest value in the middle tier part. On the other hand, the moisture content and the crude fiber were high at the lower tier of the shoot portion. The upper tier of the shoot is recommended to be consumed for health benefits because it is high in antioxidant activity and proximate content and also rich in minerals. However, the traditional practice is to consume the whole 3-foot long of this vegetable is very welcome

Author Biography

Nurul Huda, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition

Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, 88400, Malaysia


Ángel-Coronel OAD, León-García E, Vela-Gutiérrez G et al. (2018) Lipoxygenase activity associated to fruit ripening and senescence in chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. cv. “virens levis”). Journal of Food Biochemistry 42 (1): 12438. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.12438.

Lim TK (2012) Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. Vol 2. Fruits, Springer Dordrecht. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-1764-0.

Islam S, Kumar A, Dash KK, Alom S (2018) Physicochemical analysis and nutritional properties of fresh, osmo-dehydrated and dried chayote (Sechium edule L.). Journal of Postharvest Technology 6 (2): 49-56.

Saade RL (1996) Chayote, Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. Rome, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

Yruela I (2009) Copper in plants: acquisition, transport and interactions. Functional Plant Biology 36: 409-430. doi: 10.1071/FP08288.

Noumedem JA, Mihasan M, Lacmata ST et al. (2013) Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of ten Cameroonian vegetables against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3 (1): 1-9. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-26.

Podsędek A, Redzynia M, Klewicka E, Koziołkiewicz (2014) Matrix effects on the stability and antioxidant activity of red cabbage anthocyanins under simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Biomed Research International 2014: 1-12 (365738). doi: 10.1155/2014/365738.

Diré GF, Almeida MC, Coura MF et al. (2007) Effects of a chayotte (Sechium edule) extract (macerated) on the biochemistry of blood of Wistar rats and on the action against the stannous chloride effect. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10 (5): 823-827. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.823.827.

Yang MY, Chan KC, Lee YJ et al. (2015) Sechium edule Shoot Extracts and Active Components Improve Obesity and a Fatty Liver That Involved Reducing Hepatic Lipogenesis and Adipogenesis in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63(18): 4587–4596. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b00346.

Morales P, Carvalho AM, Sánchez-Mata MC et al. (2012) Tocopherol composition and antioxidant activity of Spanish wild vegetables. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59: 851–863. doi: 10.1007/s10722-011-9726-1.

Firdous SM, Sravanthi KA, Debnath RA, Neeraja KA, (2012) Protective effect of ethanolic extract and its ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions of Sechium edule fruits against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 4 (1): 354-359.

Cadena-Iñiguez J, Arévalo-Galarza L, Ruiz-Posadas LM, et al. (2006) Quality evaluation and influence of 1-MCP on Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. fruit during postharvest. Postharvest Biology and Technology 40 (2): 170-176. doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2005.12.013.

Loizzo MR, Bonesi M, Menichini F et al. (2016) Antioxidant and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes potential of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) peel, leaves and pulp fresh and processed. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 71 (4): 381-387. doi: 10.1007/s11130-016-0571-4.

Chao PY, Lin SY, Lin KH et al. (2014) Antioxidant activity in extracts of 27 indigenous Taiwanese vegetables. Nutrients 6 (5): 2115-2130. doi: 10.3390/nu6052115.

Kumawat BK, Gupta M, Tarachand SY (2012) Free radical scavenging effect of various extracts of leaves of Balanite aegyptica (L.) delile by DPPH method. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 2 (3): 323-329.

Vieira EF, Pinho O, Ferreira Isabel MPLVO, Delerue-Matos C (2019) Chayote (Sechium edule): A review of nutritional composition, bioactivities and potential applications. Food Chemistry 275: 557-568. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.09.146.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N (2010) Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Reviews 4 (8): 118. doi: 10.4103/2F0973-7847.70902.

Chang KA, Ley SL, Lee MY et al. (2021) Determination of nutritional constituents, antioxidant properties, and α-amylase inhibitory activity of Sechium edule (chayote) shoot from different extraction solvents and cooking methods. LWT 151: 112177. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2021.112177.

Vukic M.D, Vukovic NL, Djelic GT et al. (2018) Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of different plant organs of Eryngium serbicum L. Industrial Crops and Products 115: 88-97. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.02.031.

Soobrattee MA, Neergheen VS, Luximon-Ramma A, Aruoma OI, Bahorun T (2005) Phenolics as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: mechanism and actions. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis 579 (1-2): 200-213. doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2005.03.023.

AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis of AOAC. International 17th edition.

Capecka E, Mareczek A, Leja M (2005) Antioxidant activity of fresh and dry herbs of some Lamiaceae species. Food Chemistry 93 (2): 223-226. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.020.

Liu J, Wang X, Yong H, Kan J, Jin C (2018) Recent advances in flavonoid-grafted polysaccharides: Synthesis, structural characterization, bioactivities and potential applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 116: 1011-1025. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.05.149.

Van Jaarsveld P, Faber M, Van Heerden I et al. (2014) Nutrient content of eight African leafy vegetables and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 33 (1): 77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2013.11.003.

Biswas M, Haldar PK, Ghosh AK (2010) Antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging effects of fruits of Dregea volubilis. Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine 1 (1): 29. doi: 10.4103/2F0976-9668.71670.

Kudoyarova GR, Vysotskaya LB, Arkhipova TN et al. (2017) Effect of auxin producing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on mobility of soil phosphorus, growth rate, and P acquisition by wheat plants. Acta physiologiae plantarum, 39 (11): 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11738-017-2556-9.

García-Herrera P, Sánchez-Mata MC, Cámara M et al. (2014) Nutrient composition of six wild edible Mediterranean Asteraceae plants of dietary interest. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 34 (2): 163-170. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2014.02.009.

Sriwichai W, Berger J, Picq C, Avallone S (2016) Determining factors of lipophilic micronutrient bioaccessibility in several leafy vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64 (8): 1695-1701.

doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b05364.

Lalthansanga J, Samanta AK (2015) Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram. Veterinary World 8 (7): 918. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.918-923.

Shen JP, Zhang LM, Guo JF et al. (2010) Impact of long-term fertilization practices on the abundance and composition of soil bacterial communities in Northeast China. Applied Soil Ecology 46 (1): 119-124. doi: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2010.06.015.

White PJ, Brown PH (2010) Plant nutrition for sustainable development and global health. Annals of Botany 105 (7): 1073-1080. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcq085.

Schütz L, Gattinger A, Meier M et al. (2018) Improving crop yield and nutrient use efficiency via biofertilization a global meta-analysis. Frontiers in Plant Science 12 (8): 2204. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.02204.

Fageria NK, Baligar VC, Li YC (2008) The role of nutrient efficient plants in improving crop yields in the twenty first century. Journal of plant nutrition 31 (6): 1121-1157. doi: 10.1080/01904160802116068.

Reich M (2017) The significance of nutrient interactions for crop yield and nutrient use efficiency. In Plant macronutrient use efficiency. Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 65-82.

Arkhipova T, Galimsyanova N, Kuzmina L, Vysotskaya L et al. (2019) Effect of seed bacterization with plant growth-promoting bacteria on wheat productivity and phosphorus mobility in the rhizosphere. Plant, Soil and Environment 65 (6): 313-319. doi: 10.17221/752/2018-PSE.

Amir HM, Chik SW, Yaacob A, Mohd GH (1993) Which canopy tier should be sampled to determine the fertility (nutritional) status of Acacia mangium on BRIS soils? Journal of Tropical Forest Science: 48-55.

Fageria VD (2001) Nutrient interactions in crop plants. Journal of plant nutrition 24 (8): 1269-1290. doi: 10.1081/PLN-100106981.

Amir SHM, Miller HG (1990) Shorea leprosula as an indicator species for site fertility evaluation in dipterocarp forests of Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science: 101-110.

Martínez-Ballesta MC, Dominguez-Perles R, Moreno DA et al. (2010) Minerals in plant food: effect of agricultural practices and role in human health. A review. Agronomy for sustainable development 30 (2): 295-309. doi: 10.1021/jf00102a007.

Jayaganesh S, Venkatesan S (2010) Impact of magnesium sulphate on biochemical and quality. Am. J. Food Techn, 5: 31-39. doi: 10.3923/ajft.2010.31.39.

Rao KS, Dominic R, Singh K et al. (1990) Lipid, fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral compositions of five edible plant leaves. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 38 (12): 2137-2139. doi: 10.1021/jf00102a007.

Muhammad I, Altaf A, Ansari MKA et al. (2015) Improving the phytoextraction capacity of plants to scavenge metal (loid)-contaminated sites. Environmental Reviews 23 (1): 44-65. doi: 10.1139/er-2014-0043.

Pandey GK, Mahiwal S (2020) Emerging Roles of Potassium in Plants. In: Role of Potassium in Plant Culture. Ed. Pandey GK. Mahiwal S Springer Cham 69-74. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-45953-6.

Marschner H (2011) Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants. 4th Edition. Academic press. doi: 10.1016/C2009-0-63043-9.

Rout GR, Sahoo S (2015) Role of iron in plant growth and metabolism. Reviews in Agricultural Science 3: 1-24. doi: 10.7831/ras.3.1.

Briat JF, Dubos C, Gaymard F (2015) Iron nutrition, biomass production, and plant product quality. Trends in Plant Science, 20 (1): 33-40. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2014.07.005.

Silva S (2012) Aluminium toxicity targets in plants. Journal of Botany. doi: 10.1155/2012/219462.

Hall R, Cottam M, Suggate S, Tongkul F, Sperber C, Batt G (2009) The geology of mount kinabalu. Malaysia, Sabah Parks: Kota Kinabalu.

Mortensen LM, Gislerod HR (2000) Effect of air humidity on growth, keeping quality, water relations, and nutrient content of cut roses. Gartenbauwissenschaft 65 (1): 40-44.

Odhav B, Beekrum S, Akula US, Baijnath H (2007) Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of traditional leafy vegetables in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of food composition and analysis 20 (5): 430-435. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2006.04.015.

Ismail M, Manickam E, Danial AM, Rahmat A, Yahaya A (2000) Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Strobilanthes crispus leaf extract. Journal of Nutitional Biochemistry 11: 536-542 doi: 10.1016/S0955-2863(00)00108-X.

Schiltz S, Munier-Jolain N, Jeudy C et al. (2005) Dynamics of exogenous nitrogen partitioning and nitrogen remobilization from vegetative organs in pea revealed by 15N in vivo labeling throughout seed filling. Plant Physiology, 137 (4): 1463-1473. doi: 10.1104/pp.104.056713.