Multi-Drug Resistance Bacteria: A Case Study in Western Peninsular Malaysia Freshwaters
Keywords:Antibiotic resistance bacteria, broad spectrum antibiotics, Western peninsular Malaysia, 16s rRNA gene sequencing, multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR)
AbstractThe emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in aquatic environment has led to an increase in waterborne health risks to an alarming extent. This study attempts to investigate the population of certain antibiotic resistant strains in Peninsular Malaysia.Â From the samples of 14 rivers from 7 different states in Peninsular Malaysia, a total of 203 isolates were successfully isolated. These are from rivers in Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu with 35, 15, 37, 39, 24, 26 and 27 isolates, respectively. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility towards 6 broad spectrum of antibiotics which are gentamicin, ampicillin, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. A total of 117 isolates were identified to have more than 20% MAR index value with 47 of the isolates possess minimum MAR index value of 50%. Based on MAR index value, 59% of isolates are high risk threats indicating a serious emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the rivers in Peninsular Malaysia. Isolates with MAR index value of more than 50% were selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing for further identification.Based on 16s rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates are a mixture of pathogenic and commensals bacteria. This also implies that the environment especially rivers can be a reservoir for genetic jugglery
Bisen PS, Raghuvanshi R (2010) Emerging epidemics. 1st Edition. New York, Wiley Blackwell.
Jindal BAK, Pandya MK, Khan MID (2015) Antimicrobial resistance: A public health challenge medical. Journal Armed Forces India 71: 178 â€“ 181. doi: 10.1016/j.mjafi.2014.04.011
Cole J (2016) Antimicrobial resistance - a â€˜rising tideâ€™ of national (and international) risk. Journal of Hospital Infection 92: 3 â€“ 4. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2015.10.005
National Agricultural Statistics Service (2016) Agricultural Statistics. https://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/Ag_Statistics/index.php. Accessed date: Feb 2020.
Palhares, JCP, Kich JD, Bessa MC, Biesus LL, Berno LG, Triques NJ (2014) Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance in an animal-based agriculture river system. Science of the Total Environment 472: 654 â€“ 661. doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.052
GarcÃa-Feliz C, Collazos JA, Carvajal A, Herrera S, Echeita MA, Rubio P (2008) Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica isolates from apparently healthy and clinically ill finishing pigs in Spain. Zoonoses Public Health 55: 195 â€“ 205. doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2008.01110.x.
National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System â€” enteric bacteria (2007) Food and Drug Administration Executive report. http://www.fda.gov. Accessed date: Feb 2020.
Sarmah AK, Meyer MT, Boxall ABA (2006) A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment. Chemosphere 65: 725 â€“ 759. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.026
Oâ€™neill J, Minghui R, Kuo N, Chaudhry S, Bonney MW, Solomon S, Hamied YK, Moraes MO, Goosby E, Audi H, Knox J, Hall W, McDonnell A, Seshadri A, Mudd J, Truscott-Reid N, Toxvaerd F, Woodford N, Macdonald O (2015) Antimicrobials in Agriculture and the Environment: Reducing Unnecessary Use and Waste. https://amr-review.org/sites/default/files/Antimicrobials%20in%20agriculture%20and%20the%20environment%20-%20Reducing%20unnecessary%20use%20and%20waste.pdf. Accessed date: Feb 2020.
Witte W (1998) Medical consequences of antibiotic use in agriculture. Science 279: 996 â€“ 997. doi: 10.1126/science.279.5353.996
Bengtsson-Palme J, Angelin M, Huss M, Kjellqvist S, Kristiansson E, Palmgren H, Larsson DG, Johansson A (2015) The human gut microbiome as a transporter of antibiotic resistance genes between continents. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 59 (10): 6551 â€“ 6560. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00933-15.
Zhang X, Li Y, Liu B, Wang J, Feng C, Gao M, Wang L (2014) Prevalence of Veterinary Antibiotics and Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in the Surface Water of a Livestock Production Region in Northern China. PLOS One 9 (11): e111026. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.011
Alhaj N, Mariana NS, Raha AR, Ishak Z (2007) Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance among Escherichia coli from Different Sources in Malaysia. International Journal of Poultry Science 6 (4): 293 â€“ 297. doi: 10.3923/ijps.2007.293.297
Kathleen, M., Samuel, L., Felecia, C., Ng, K., Lesley, M., and Kasing, A. (2014). (GTG) 5-PCR analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing of bacteria from Sarawak aquaculture environment. In International Food Research Journal, 21 (3): 915 â€“ 920.
Department of Statistics Malaysia (2018) Malaysia @ a Glance: Selangor. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cone&menu_id=eGUyTm9RcEVZSllmYW45dmpnZHh4dz09. Accessed date: Feb 2020.
Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (2018) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 28th Edition. https://clsi.org/media/1930/m100ed28_sample.pdf. Accessed on: Feb 2020.
Riaz S, Faisal M, Hasnain S (2011) Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and multiple antibiotic resistances (MAR) calculation of extended spectrum Î²-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species in Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology 10 (33): 6325 â€“ 6331. doi: 10.5897/AJB11.086
Clarridge JE (2004) Impact of 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis for Identification of Bacteria on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 17 (4); 840 â€“ 862. doi: 10.1128/CMR.17.4.840-862.2004
Bernier SP, Surette MG (2013) Concentration-dependent activity of antibiotics in natural environments. Front Microbiology 4: 20. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00020.
Iyawoo K (2004) Tuberculosis in Malaysia: problems and prospect of treatmen and control. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 84 (1-2): 4 â€“ 7. doi: 10.1016/j.tube.2003.08.014.
World Health Organization (2018) Global Tuberculosis Report. https://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/gtbr2018_main_text_28Feb2019.pdf. Accessed date: March 2020.
Kementerian Dalam Negeri (2018) Statistik Pekerja Asing Terkini Mengikut Negeri dan Sektor. http://www.data.gov.my/data/ms_MY/dataset/statistik-pekerja-asing-terkini-mengikut-negeri-dan-sektor. Accessed date: March 2020.
Chitanand M, Kadam T, Gyananath G, Totewad N, Balhal D (2010) Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of coliforms to identify high risk contamination sites in aquatic environment. Indian Journal of Microbiology 50 (2): 216 â€“ 220. doi: 10.1007/s12088-010-0042-9
Osundiya O, Oladele R, Oduyebo O (2013) Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices of Pseudomonas and Klebsiella species isolates in Lagos University Teaching Hospital. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology 14 (3): 164 â€“ 168. doi.org/10.4314/ajcem.v14i3.8
Woo P, Lau S, Teng J, Tse H, Yuen KY (2008) Then and now: use of 16S rDNA gene sequencing for bacterial identification and discovery of novel bacteria in clinical microbiology laboratories. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 14 (10): 908 â€“ 934. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02070.x.
Davies J, Davies D (2010) Origins and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 74 (3): 417 â€“ 433. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00016-10
Mergeay M (2015) The history of Cupriavidus metallidurans strains isolated from anthropogenic environments. In: Mergeay M, Van Houdt R, eds. Metal Response in Cupriavidus metallidurans: Volume I: From Habitats to Genes and Proteins. Belgium, Springer. 1-10.
von Wintersdorff CJH, Penders J, van Niekerk JM, Mills ND, Majumder S, van Alphen LB, Savelkoul PHM, Wolffs PFG (2016) Dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in microbial ecosystems through horizontal gene transfer. Frontiers in Microbiology 7: 173. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00173
The work has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or part of a published lecture or thesis) and it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. When the manuscript is accepted for publication in this journal, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.
Journal of Tropical Life Science is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License