White Kabesak (Acacia Leucophloea RoxB) Leaves Utilization in Concentrate on Fermentation Products and In Vitro Gas Production

E.D. Wie Lawa, S Chuzaemi, Hartutik Hartutik, Marjuki Marjuki

Abstract


This study aimed to evaluate gas production and in vitro fermentation products from feed containing leaves of white kabesak (acacia leucophloea Roxb.)Willd. Feed was composed of a ratio of 60% natural grasses and 40% concentrate. The treatments were used levels of white kabesak leaves in concentrates i.e. 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% in the dry matter (DM) basis as treatments, R0, R1, R2, R3 and R4 treatments, respectively. The results showed that inclusion of acacia leucophloea leaves in concentrate increased organic matter and crude fiber contents but decreased the crude protein content. Increasing level of acacia leucophloea  leaves in concentrate decreased  gas production (b, ml / 500 mg DM) from 198.29 (R0) to 139.93 (R4). The gas production rate (c, ml /hour) was relatively constant between 0.034 to 0.036 on R0 - R3 and 0.028 on R4. Gas production at 48 hours incubation (y, ml / 500 mg DM) decreased from 153.38 (R0) to 103.23 (R4). The NH3 concentrations ranged from 6.17-7.31 mg / 100 ml and the total VFA was 83.07-91.96 mM. The lowest C2 / C3 ratio was in R2 (2.63). The highest IVDMD was 50.18-67.14% in R0 and the lowest IVOMD was 55.04-71.35% R4. The use of acacia leucophloea leaves at level 20% in concentrates as supplements was more efficient in reducing gas production and in vitro fermentation products.


Keywords


Acacia leucophloea, concentrate, gas production, in vitro, fermentation products

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aganga, A.A. & O. Tshwenyane. 2003. Feeding values and anti-nutritive factors of forage tree legumes. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition., 2(3):170-177.

Amanullah, M.M., E. Somasundaram., A. Alagesan., K. Vaiyapuri., S. Pazhanivelan, & K. Sathyamoorthi. 2006. Evaluation of some tree species for leaf fodder in Tamil Nadu. Res. J. Agric. & Biol. Sci., 2(6):552-553.

Aminifard, Z., M. Chaji, & T. Mohammadabadi. 2015. The replacement value of corn silage with wild pistachio (Pistachio khinyuk) leaf in the diet of sheep and its effect on digestibility of fiber and protein. Journal of Livestock Science and Technology., 3 (1):17-23. http://Ist.uk.ac.ir.

AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Arlington, VA.

Arulnathan, N. & M. Chellapandian. 2016. Chemical composition of thorny tree leaves available during dry season in North Western Zone of Tamil Nadu for goats. International Journal of Science, Environtment and Technology., 5(3):1381-1383. https://www.ijset.net.

Bamualim, A.M. & R.B. Wirdahayati. 2002. Peternakan di Lahan Kering Nusa Tenggara. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Nusa Tenggara Timur, Kupang. 120 halaman.

Blümmel, M. & K. Becker. 1997. The degradability characteristics of fifty-four roughages and roughage neutral-detergent fibre as described by in vitro gas production and their relationship to voluntary feed intake. British Journal of Nutrition., 77:757-786.

Bunglavan, S.J.& N. Dutta. 2013. Use of tannins as organic protectants of proteins in digestion of ruminants. J. of Livestock Sci. 4: 67-77.

Conway, E.J. 1957. Microdiffusion analysis and volumetric error. Crosby Cockwood, London, UK.

Frutoz, P., M. Raso., G. Hervas., A.R. Mantecon., V. Perez, & F.J. Giraldez. 2004. Is there any detrimental effect when a chestnut hydrolysable tannins extract is included in the diet of finishing lambs?. Anim Res., 56 : 127-136.

Galindo, J., Y. Morrero., T. Ruiz., N. Gonzales., A. Diaz., A. Aldama., O. Moreira., J. Hernandez., V. Torres, & L. Sarduy. 2009. Effecto de una mezcla multiple de leguminosas herbaceas y leucaena leucocephala enla poblacios microbiana y productos fermentativos del rumen de anojos mestizos de Cebu. Revista Cubana de Crencia Agricolo., 43:256-264.

Jayanegara, A.& A. Sofyan. 2008. Penentuan aktivitas biologis tanin beberapa hijauan secara in vitro menggunakan Hohenheim gas test dengan polietilen glikol sebagai determinan. Media Peternakan., Vol. 31 (1):44-52.

Kamra, D.N. 2005. Rumen microbial ecosystem. Special Section: Microbial Diversity. Current Science., Vol. 89 (1):124-135.

Makkar, H.P.S., M. Blümmel, & K. Becker. 1997. Application of an in-vitro gas method to understand the effect of natural plant products on availability and partitioning of nutrients. Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Sub Tropics, Univ. Of Stuttgart, Germany.

Makkar, H.P.S. 1993. Antinutritional factors in foods for livestock. British Society of Anim. Production., 16:69-85.

Makkar, H.P.S., M. Blümmel, & K. Becker. 1995. In vitro effects of and interactions between tannins and saponins and fate of tannins in the rumen. J.Sci. Food Agric., 69:481-493.

Makkar, H.P.S.& K. Becker. 1993. Vanilline-HCl method for condensed tannins : effect of organic solvents used for extraction of tannins. J. Chem. Ecol. 19: 613-621.

Makkar, H.P.S., G. Francis & K. Becker. 2007. Bioactivity of phytochemicals in some lesser known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production system. Animal., (1) : 1371-1391.

McDonald, P., R.A. Edwards., J.F.D. Greenhalgh, & C.A. Morgan. 2002. Animal Nutrition. Pearson Education Limited, Essex CM20 2JE, England,

Meissner, H.H., M. Smith, & W.A. Niekerk. 1993. Rumen ammonia concentration and non ammonia nitrogen passage and apparent absorbtion from the small intestine of sheep ingesting subtropical and temperate tannin containing forage. J. Anim. Sci., 23:92-97.

Mokoboki, H.K. 2011. Effect of Acacia hebeclada species within season on techniques used to measure nutritive value and anti-nutritional forages in browse tree leaves. Life Science Journal., 8 (52):112-119

Nulik, J., P.T. Fernandez, & Z. Babys. 1990. Produksi hijauan dari pastur alam di desa Naibonat dan Camplong, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Laporan Penelitian. Sub Balai Penelitian Ternak Lili, Kupang. Pp. 60-64.

Ojo, V.O.A., S.A. Adeoye., A.O. Oni., O.O. Adelusi., K.O. Yusuf., A.O. Jolaoska., J.A. Olanite & O.S. Onifade. 2017. Nutritive value of processed feed respources from natural pastures within South-west Nigeria. Archivos de Zootecnea. 66 (256) : 469-474.

Olivares, P.J., N.F. Aviles., P.B. Albarran., O.O.A. Castelan, & H.S. Rojas. 2013. Use of three fodder trees in the feeding of goats in the subhumids tropics in Mexico. Tropical Animal Held and Production., 45:821-828.

Ørskov, E.R. & I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge., 92:499-503.

Ørskov, E.R. 1982. Protein Nutrition in Ruminants. Academics Press. INC, London, LTD.

Ørskov, E.R. 2002. Alkali-treated grain for cattle. In: Trails and trails livestock research. Printed by Andi Offset, Yogyakarta.

Orwa, C., A. Mutua., R. Kindt., Jamnadass, & A. Simons. 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp.

Owens, F.N. & R. Zinn. 1988. Protein Metabolism of Ruminant Animal Digestive Physiology and Nutrition. Reston Book Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Sallam, S.M.A.H., I.C. da Silva Bueno., P.B. de Godoy., E.F. Nozella., D.M.S.S. Vitti, & A.L. Abdalla. 2010. Ruminal fermentation and tannins bioactivity of some browse using a semi-automated gas production technique. Tropical and Sub Tropical Agroecosystems., http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=93913074001.

Shamseldin, H. Ahmed., M.E.M. Jumaa & Shadia, A. Omer. 2017. The use of in vitro gas production technique as an index of the nutritive value of green shoot, leaves, fruits flesh and seed cakes of Ziziphus spina-christi (sidder) tree for feeding ruminants. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS). 10 (2) : 58-63.

Singh, R.V. 1982. Fodder trees of India. Oxford and IBH Publishing, Co. New Delhi, India. Pp 367-369.

Statistica. 1993. Statistica for Windows release 4.3, Statsoft, Inc. Tulsa, UK.

Steel, R.G.D. & J.H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics with Special Refference to the Biological Science. McGraw Hill, New York.

Van Soest, P.J., J.B. Robertson, & B.A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74 (10): 3583-3597. http://jds.fass.org/cgi/reprint/74/10/3583.pdf

Wina, E. 2010. Utilization of tannin containing shrub legumes for small ruminant production in Indonesia. Wartazoa., Vol.20 (1): 21-30.




Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Tropical Life Science