Isolation and Characterization of Fungi strains associated with Mycotoxin Production from Bambara (Vigna subterranea (L) verdc) nuts Recovered in Nigeria

Simeon Kolawole Odetunde, Stephen Oyedele Fapohunda, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan

Abstract


Fungal contamination of food commodities is a global food security challenge that impacts negatively on the health of consumers. Mycotoxins are produced as secondary metabolites by some pathogenic fungi and may contaminate agricultural products while on the field or during harvesting and storage. A field survey was conducted in order to isolate and identify the mycotoxin producing fungal strains in Bambara nuts collected from major markets in eight States in Nigeria. Samples per site were pooled, processed and screened for the presence of mycotoxin-producing fungi by culture technique and intergenic spacer sequencing (ITS).  Mycotoxin production was determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) with scanning densitometer.  Twenty-four producing fungal strains: Talaromyces pinophilus, Macrophomina phaseolina (6), Fusarium oxysporum (2), Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus flavipes, Rhizopus oryzae (2), Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus flavus (2), Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus welwitschiae, Rhizopus microsporus, Ceriporia lacerate and Fusarium verticillioides (accession numbers of MN42329-MN4233323) were identified from Bambara nuts. The genera Macrophomina were the most dominant.  Some of the identified fungi are noted for the production of mycotoxins and mycotoxins exert toxic effects on animals and humans. The fungi associated to Bambara nut diseases were identified and can be taken as targets in varietal improvement of Bambara nut for resistance to fungal diseases in Nigeria.


Keywords


Bambara groundnut, Mycotoxin, Contamination, Fungi, ITS

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abrunhosa L, Morales H, Soares C, Calado T, Vila-Cha AS, Pereira M, Venancio A (2016). A review of mycotoxins in food and feed products in Portugal and estimation of probable daily intakes. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56(2):249‒265.

Afsah‐Hejri L, Jinap S, Hajeb P, Radu S. Shakibazadeh S (2013). A review on mycotoxins in food and feed: Malaysia case study. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 12(6):629‒651.

Alozie YE, Iyam MA, Lawal O, Udofia, U, Ani IF (2009). Utilization of Bambara groundnut blends in bread production. Journal of Food Technology 7(4), 111‒114.

Ashiq S (2015). Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed: Pakistan Perspective. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 14(2): 159‒175.

Baranyi N, Kocsubé S, Kiss N, Palágyi A, Varga M, Tóth B, Varga J (2014). Identification of potential mycotoxin producing fungi on agricultural products in Hungary and Serbia. Acta Biologica Szegediensis 50(2):167‒170.

Barimalaa IS, Agoha G, Oboh CA, Kiin‐Kabari DB (2005). Studies on Bambara groundnut flour performance in okpa preparation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85(3):413‒417.

Barnett HL, Hunter BB (1972). Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. Minneapolis: Burgess publishing company, Minneapolis MN, pp 241

de Hoog G.S, Guarro J, Gene J, Figueras MJ (2000). Atlas of Clinical Fungi. 2nd edn. Published by Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures/Universitat Rovira i Virgili.

Falade KO, Ogundele OM, Ogunshe AO, Fayemi OE, Ocloo FCK (2015). Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and soybeans (Glycine max). Journal of Food Science and Technology 52(9):5858‒5865.

Guezlane-Tebibel N, Bouras N., Mokrane S, Benayad T, Mathieu F (2013). Aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from marketed peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in Algiers (Algeria). Annals of Microbiology 63(1):295‒305.

Guezlane-Tebibel N, Bouras N, Mokrane S, Benayad T, Mathieu F (2013). Aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from marketed peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in Algiers (Algeria). Annals of Microbiology 63(1):295‒305.

Heller J, Begemann F, et Mushonga J (1997). Bambara groundnut Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. Conservation and improvement of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.). Harare, Zimbabwe: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. pp 166.

Ijarotimi OS, Olopade AJ (2009). Determination of amino acid content and protein quality of complementary food produced from locally available food materials in Ondo state, Nigeria. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition 15(1):87‒95.

Ijarotimi OS, Oyewo MT, Oladeji BS (2009). Chemical, functional and sensory properties of roasted Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L. Verdc) and cooking banana (Musa spp., ABB genome) weaning diet. African Jornal of Food Science 3(5): 139‒146.

James S, Akosu NI, Maina YC, Baba AI, Nwokocha L, Amuga SJ, Audu Y, Omeiza MYM (2017). Effect of addition of processed Bambara nut on the functional and sensory acceptability of millet-based infant formula. Food Science and Nutrition. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.618

Murevanhema YY, Jideani VA (2013). Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage-a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 53(9): 954‒967.

Ouoba A, Zida EP, Soalla RW, Bangratz M, Essowè P, Konaté MN, Nandkangré H, Ouédraogo M, Sawadogo M (2019). Molecular characterization of the main fungi associated to Bambara groundnut foliar diseases in Burkina Faso. J. Appl. Biosc. 133: 13574 - 13583

Paterson RRM, Lima N (2010). How will climate change affect mycotoxins in food? Food Research International 43:1902–1914.

Saitou N, Nei M. (1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biology Evol. 4(4):406-425

Sales AC, Yoshizawa T (2005). Updated profile of aflatoxin and Aspergillus section flavi contamination in rice and its byproducts from the Philippines. Food Additives and Contaminants 22(5):429‒436.

Samapundo SF, Devlieghere BD, Meulenaer, Debevere J (2007). Growth kinetics of cultures from single spores of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticilliodes on yellow dent corn neal. Food Microbiology 24:336-345.

Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S (2007). MEGA 4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24:1596–1599.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11594/jtls.11.01.04

Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Life Science