Conservation strategy of Anaphalis spp. in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java

Filza Yulina Ade, Luchman Hakim, Estri Laras Arumingtyas, Rodiyati Azrianingsih


The objective of the paper were to identify factors related to conservation strategy of Anaphalis in BTSNP. This study found internal factor related to strength includes the existence of species and value of Anaphalis spp., while the weaknesses include increase of habitat degradation and disturbance caused by tourism activities. The opportunities for conservation includes support of policy in biodiversity conservation and increase of ecotourism movement, while the threats aspect include less control of land uses changes and increase of mass tourism. The SWOT analyses recommends some significant strategy which are derived from combination of enhancing strength to optimizing opportunities, reducing weaknesses and optimizing opportunities, Enhancing strength to reduce threats and managing weaknesses to manage risk.  


SWOT-conservation, Edelweiss population, ecotourism

Full Text:



von Rintelen K, Arida E, Häuser C (2017) A review of biodiversity-related issues and challenges in megadiverse Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries. Research Ideas and Outcomes 3:e20860.

Murniningtyas E, Darajati W, Sumardja ES (2016) Indonesia Biodiversity and Strategy and Action Plan (IBSAP) 2015-2020. Kementrian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional/BAPPENAS - Kementrian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan-Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Jakarta.

Margono BA, Potapov PV, Turubanova S, Stolle F, Hansen MC (2014) Primary forest cover loss in Indonesia over 2000–2012. Nature climate change 4(8):730.

Scolozzi R, Schirpke U, Morri E, D'Amato D, Santolini R (2014) Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies. Journal of environmental management 146:543-551.

Braun R, Amorim A (2015) Rapid ‘SWOT’ diagnosis method for conservation areas. Scottish Geographical Journal 131(1):17-35.

Bull JW, Jobstvogt N, Böhnke-Henrichs A, Mascarenhas A, Sitas N, Baulcomb C, Carter-Silk E (2016) Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats: A SWOT analysis of the ecosystem services framework. Ecosystem services 17:99-111.

Hakim L (2011) Cultural Landscapes of the Tengger Highland, East Java. In: Landscape Ecology in Asian Cultures. Tokyo, Springer. 69-82.

Pramita NH, Indriyani S, Hakim L (2013) Etnobotani Upacara Kasada Masyarakat Tengger, di Desa Ngadas, Kecamatan Malang, Poncokusumo, Kabupaten Malang. Journal of Indonesian Tourism and Development Studies 1(2):52-61.

Hakim L, Soemarno M (2017) Biodiversity conservation, community development and geotourism development in bromo-tengger-semeru-arjuno biosphere reserve. Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites 20(2):220-230.

BTSNP (2018) Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park Annual Report. Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Jakarta.

van Steenis CGGJ, Hamzah A, Toha M (1972) Mountain flora of Java. Leiden, Brill Academic Publisher.

Day JC (2002) Zoning—lessons from the Great Barrier Reef marine park. Ocean & coastal management 45(2-3):139-156.

Hakim L (2014) Etnobotani dan manajemen kebun-pekarangan rumah: ketahanan pangan, kesehatan, dan agrowisata. Malang. Selaras.

Pejchar L, Mooney HA (2009) Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends in ecology & evolution 24(9):497-504.

Brewer S (2008) Declines in plant species richness and endemic plant species in longleaf pine savannas invaded by Imperata cylindrica. Biological Invasions 10(8):1257-1264.

Zedler PH, Black C (2004) Exotic plant invasions in an endemic‐rich habitat: The spread of an introduced Australian grass, Agrostis avenacea JF Gmel., in California vernal pools. Austral ecology 29(5):537-546.

Booy G, Hendriks RJJ, Smulders MJM, Van Groenendael JM, Vosman B (2000). Genetic diversity and the survival of populations. Plant Biology 2(04):379-395.

Ade FY, Hakim L, Arumingtyas EL, Azrianingsih R (2019) Habitat Anaphalis spp. in Tourism Area in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java. Indonesian Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development 10(2)

D'Antonio CM, Vitousek PM (1992) Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual review of ecology and systematics 23(1):63-87.

Gorgone-Barbosa E, Pivello VR, Bautista S, Zupo T, Rissi MN, Fidelis A (2015) How can an invasive grass affect fire behavior in a tropical savanna? A community and individual plant level approach. Biological Invasions 17(1):423-431.

Hernández-Cordero AI, Hernández-Calvento L, Espino EPC (2017) Vegetation changes as an indicator of impact from tourist development in an arid transgressive coastal dune field. Land Use Policy 64:479-491.

Bookbinder MP, Dinerstein E, Rijal A, Cauley H, Rajouria A (1998) Ecotourism’s support of biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 12(6):1399-1404.

Salum LA (2009) Ecotourism and biodiversity conservation in Jozani–Chwaka Bay National Park, Zanzibar. African Journal of Ecology 47:166-170.


Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Life Science