Antibacterial Screening of Mangrove Extract Library Showed Potential Activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

Kholis Abdurachim Audah, Razethy Batubara, Julkipli Julkipli, Elza Wijaya, Evi Kurniawaty, Irmanida Batubara


Humans are at a continuous battle against different types of diseases, so that extraordinary effort to accelerate drug discovery has become a necessity. Indonesian biodiversity is abundant natural resources that can be utilized as potential drug sources. Mangroves are among potential plant medicines that grow nearly at all Indonesian coastlines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mangrove extracts (extract library) as antibacterial agents. In this study, eight mangroves species with 16 samples from different parts of the plants such as leaf, bark or root were collected. Four types of solvents with different polarity, namely water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane were used in maceration of samples producing 64 extracts. Disk diffusion method was used for antibacterial screening using five bacterial strains. There were 37 extracts showed antibacterial potential with the lowest and the highest inhibition indexes were 0.0283 and 1.8983, respectively. The highest inhibition index was recorded for ethyl acetate extract of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza root (BgR (Ea)) against Escherichia coli. The second highest inhibition index was 0.7867 recorded water extract of Avicennia marina leaf (AmL (A)) against Staphylococcus aureus. Almost all of extract showed saponin and tannin in considerable amount. This supported the data that mangrove extracts were potential as antibacterial agents.


Antimicrobial, drug discovery, drug resistant, extract library, Indonesian biodiversity

Full Text:



World Health Organization Report. (1996).

Royal Botanical Garden Report 2016. (2017). State of the World’s Plants.

Fauna Flora International Report. (2010).

Bandaranayake WM (2002) Bioactive compounds and chemicals constituents of mangrove plants. Wetland Ecol-ogy and Management 10: 421 – 452. doi: 10.1023/A:1021397624349.

Giri C, Ochieng E, Tieszen LL et al. (2011) Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Global Ecology and Biogeogra-phy 20 (1): 154 – 159. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00584.x.

Mouafi FE, Abdel-Aziz SM, Bashir AA, Fyiad AA (2014). Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of mangrove leaves (Avicenna marina and Rhizophora stylosa) against some pathogens. World Applied Sciences Journal 29 (4): 547 – 554. doi: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2014.29.04.13901.

Audah KA, Amsyir J, Almasyhur, A M Hapsari and H Sutanto. (2018). Development of extract library from In-donesian biodiversity: exploration of antibacterial activity of mangrove Bruguiera cylindrica leaf extracts. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 130 012025.

Association of Official Analytical Chemist [AOAC] (2006) Official methods of AOAC international 14th Edi-tion. Arlington (US), Association of Official Analytical Chemist.

Department of Health of the Republic of Indonesia (2009) Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopeia. First Edition. Jakarta (ID), Depkes RI.

Ravikumar S, Ali MS, Ramu A, Ferosekhan M (2011) Antibacterial activity of chosen mangrove plants against bacterial specified pathogens. World Applied Sciences Journal 14 (8): 1198 – 1202.

Harborne JB (1987) Metode fitokimia. Padmawinata K, Soediro I, translator; Niksolihin S, editor. Bandung (ID), Bandung Institute of Technology. Translation from: Phy-tochemical Methods.

Batubara I, Mitsunaga T (2013). Use of Indonesian Me-dicinal Plant Products against Acne. Reviews in Agricul-tural Science 1: 11 – 30. doi: 10.7831/ras.1.11.

Rege AA, Chowdhary AS (2013) Evaluation of man-grove plants as putative Hiv-Protease inhibitors. Indian Drugs 50 (7): 41.

Yi XX, Deng JG, Gao CH et al. (2015) Four new cyclo-hexylideneacetonitrile derivatives from the hypocotyl of mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). Molecules 20 (8): 14565 – 14575. doi: 10.3390/molecules200814565.

Murugan T, Wins JA, Murugan M (2013) Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of leaf extracts of Cassia auriculata. Indian Journal of Pharmacy 75 (1): 122 – 125. doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.113546.

Atanasov AG, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig E et al. (2015) Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically ac-tive plant-derived natural products: A review. Biotech-nology Advances 33 (8): 1582 – 1614. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.08.001

Audah KA, Manuella K, Amsyir J et al. (2018) Ultra-sound-assisted extraction as efficient method for obtain-ing optimum antioxidant from mangrove leaves of Rhi-zophora mucronata. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences (Special Issue): 47 – 55.


Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Tropical Life Science