Nutritional Content and Characteristics of Antimicrobial Compounds from Fermented Oil Palm Fronds (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

Dewi Febriana, Syukria Ikhsan Zam, Rahmi Febriyanti, Zumarni Zumarni, Jepri Juliantoni, Abdul Fatah

Abstract


This research was conducted to determine physical quality, the nutritional quality and characteristics of antimicrobial compounds from fermented oil palm fronds (FOPF). This research was carried out using a Complete Randomized Design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The following treatments were performed by the addition of different additives namely: 10% poultry manure, 10% cow feces, 5% urea and 5% molasses. All treatments were extracted in stages using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The observed parameters were physical quality (pH, aroma, color, and texture), nutritional quality (neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin), yield of extract, class of bioactive compounds and the antimicrobial activity test of extracted compounds. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance and differences between treatments were tested using Duncan's multiple range test. The addition of different additives has a very significant effect (P < 0.01) on the lignin content; significant effect (P < 0.05) on pH, aroma, color and texture; and no effect on the content of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose. The highest yield of extract was obtained from methanol extract with the addition of poultry manure. The methanol extract on the addition of poultry manure and urea were identified as compounds in the steroid, tannin and phenolic classes. The highest antimicrobial activity test against Escherichia coli (12.83 mm) was obtained from FOPF extract (1%) with addition of poultry manure, while highest antimicrobial activity test against Staphylococcus aureus (11.67 mm) was obtained from FOPF extract (4%) with addition of molasses. The conclusion of this research was FOPF with addition of poultry manure provides good physical quality, nutritional quality and can inhibit the growth of E. coli and S. aureus at a concentration of 1%.


Keywords


Nutritional content, antimicrobial compounds, Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Febrina D, Jamarun N, Zain M, Khasrad (2016) The effects of P, S and Mg supplementation of oil palm fronds fermented by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on rumen fluid characteristics and microbial protein synthesis. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 15: 299 – 304. doi: doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2016.299.304.

Febrina D, Jamarun N, Zain M, Khasrad (2016) Effects of calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) supplementation during oil palm frond fermentation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on in vitro digestibility and rumen fluid characteristics. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 15: 352 – 358. doi: doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2016.352.358.

Zahari WM, Hassan OA, Wong HK, Liang JB (2003) Utilization of oil palm frond - based diets for beef and dairy production in Malaysia. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 16 (4): 625 – 634. doi: doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.625.

Rahman MM, Lourenço M, Hassim HA et al. (2011) Improving ruminal degradability of oil palm fronds using white rot fungi. Animal Feed Science and Technology 169 (3-4) :157 – 166. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.06.014.

Kawamoto H, Mohamed WZ, Sukur NIM et al. (2001) Palatability, digestibility and voluntary intake of processed oil palm fronds in cattle. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 35; 195 – 200. doi: doi.org/10.6090/jarq.35.195.

Febrina D, Febriyanti R, Zam SI et al. (2018) Antibacterial activity testing and ethanol extract characterization of oil palm fronds (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 17 (9): 427 – 433. doi: 10.3923/pjn.2018.427.433.

Sasidharan S, Rajoo N, Rathinam X et al. (2010) Wound healing potential of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. leaves in an infected albino rat model. Molecules 15: 3186 – 3199. doi: 10.3390/molecules15053186.

Syahmi ARM, Vijayarathna S, Sasidharan S et al. (2010) Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (oil palm leaf) methanol extract. Molecules 15: 8111 – 8121. doi: 10.3390/molecules15118111.

Febrina D (2016) Utilization of oil palm fronds biodelignification products using Phanerochaete chrysosporium as substitute forage on goat. PhD thesis. Andalas University, Department Animal Science.

Franswort NR (1996) Biological and phytochemical screenings of plant. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 55 (3): 225 – 265. doi: 10.1002/jps.2600550302.

Handayani D, Sandrawaty N, Murniati M, Regina R (2015) Screening of endophytic bacteria isolated from marine sponge Haliclona fascigera for inhibition against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 5: 139 – 142. doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.50926.

Ozduven ML, Koc F, Polat C, Coskuntuna L (2009) The effects of lactic acid bacteria and enzyme mixture inoculants on fermentation and nutrient digestibility of sunflower silage. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 15 (2): 195 – 199. doi: 10.9775/kvfd.2008.91-A.

Laura B, Paolo G (2006) Algae: Anatomy Biochemistry and Biotecnology. Boca Raton, CRC Press.

Umiyasih U, Wina E (2008) Processing and nutritional value of corn by-product as ruminant feed. Wartazoa 18 (3): 127 – 136.

Saun RJV, Henrich AJ (Eds) (2008) Proceedings of the Mid-Atlantic Conference: 26 May 2008; Pennsylvania. Penn States Collage.

Amanullah MA, Sekar S, Muthukrishnan P (2010) Prospect and potential of poultry manure. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 9 (4): 1 – 11. doi: 10.3923/ajps.2010.172.182.

Thambirajah JJ, Zulkali MD, Hashim MA (1995) Microbiological and biochemical changes during the composting of oil palm empty-fruit-bunches. Effect of nitrogen supplementation on the substrate. Bioresource Technology 52 (2): 133 – 144. doi: 10.1016/0960-8524(95)00008-3.

Salamah E, Ayuningrat E, Purwaningsih S (2008) Initial screening of freshwater mussel bioactive components from (Anodonta woodiana Lea.) from antioxidant compounds. Buletin Teknologi Hasil Perikanan 11 (2): 119 – 132. doi: 10.17844/jphpi.v11i2.912.

Harborne AJ. Phytochemical Methods A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 3rd Edition. Dordrecht, Springer.

Bose R, Majumdar C, Bhattacharya S (1997) Steroids in Achatina fulica (bowdich): Steroid profile in haemolymph and in vitro release of steroids from endogenous precursors by ovotestis and albumen gland. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 116 (3): 179 – 182. doi: 10.1016/S0742-8413(96)00163-6.

Silva BP, Sousa AC, Silva GM, Mendes TP, Parente JP. A new bioactive steroidal saponin from Agave attenuata. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 57c: 423 – 428.

Schmidt G, Steinhart H (2001) Impact of extraction solvents on steroid contents determined in beef. Food Chemistry 76 (1): 83 – 88. doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00237-0.

Widya DR, Suryanto D, Desrita (2014) Antimicrobial activity of lotus seeds (Nymphaea pubescens L.) on bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Saprolegnia sp. Jurnal Aquacoastmarine 2 (1): 7 – 14.

Martono B, Setiyono RT (2014) Phytochemical screening of six tea genotypes. Journal of Industrial and Baverage Crops 1 (2): 63 – 68. doi: 10.21082/jtidp.v1n2.2014.p63-68.

Poelongan M, Praptiwi (2010) Antibacterial activity test of mangos teen (Gardnia mangostana Linn.) peel. Media Litbang Kesehatan 20 (2): 65 – 69.

Ikalinus R, Widyastuti SK, Setiasih NLE (2015) Phytochemical screening ethanol extract skin stem moringa (Moringa oleifera). Indonesia Medicus Veterinus 4 (1): 71 – 79.

Wardhani LK, Sulistyani N (2012) Antibacterial activity test of ethyl acetate extract of binahong leaf (Anredera scandens (L.) Moq.) against Shigella flexneri with the profile of thin layer chromatography. Jurnal Ilmiah Kefarmasian 2 (1): 1 – 16.

Nanda. A, Saravanan M (2009) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Staphylococcus aureus and its antimicrobial activity against MRSA and MRSE. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 5 (4): 452 – 456. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2009.01.012.

Davis WW, Stout TR (1971) Disc plate method of microbiological antibiotic assay. I. Factors influencing variability and error. Applied Microbiology 22: 659 – 665.

Mudi SY, Ibrahim H (2008) Activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum S. Kurz extracts on respiratory tract pathogenic bacteria. Bayero Journal of Pure Applied Sciences 1 (1): 43 – 48. doi: 10.4314/bajopas.v1i1.57512.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11594/jtls.10.01.04

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Tropical Life Science