Floristic and Phytoclimatic Study of a Sacred Grove Vegetation of West Midnapore District, West Bengal, India
Keywords:APG IV, biodiversity conservation, biological spectrum, phytoclimate, sacred grove
Traditional cultural and religious beliefs and practices play a crucial role in the conservation of the environment and biodiversity in the form of the sacred groves. The present study was carried out to explore the plant resources, their biological spectrum, leaf size spectra, the conservation status of a sacred grove, locally known as Narampur Barapir Astana (NBA) in West Midnapore district of West Bengal in India. Floristic list of the study revealed that the vegetation of NBA was diverse and composed of 277 species belonging to 238 genera distributed over 77 families under 36 orders according to APG IV classification. The dominant order and family in terms of species richness were Lamiales 27 (9.75%) and Fabaceae 32 (11.55%) respectively. The biological spectrum shows the study area was classified as â€œthero-chamae-cryptophyticâ€ type of phytoclimate. As regards the leaf size spectra, mesophyll 56 (20.22%) was found to be high. The study area being a sacred grove is fairly undisturbed. For the long-term conservation of germplasm of the grove some recommendations are suggested.
Kent EF (2013) Sacred groves and local gods: religion and environmentalism in South India. Oxford University Press, Oxford. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199895465.001.0001.
Sinha RK (1995) Biodiversity conservation through faith and tradition in India: some case studies. The International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 2 (4): 278 â€“ 284. doi: 10.1080/13504509509469908.
Colding J, Folke C (2001) Social taboos: â€œinvisibleâ€ systems of local resource management and biological conservation. Ecological Applications 11 (2): 584 â€“ 600. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(2001)011[0584:stisol]2.0.co;2.
Khan ML, Khumbongmayum AD, Tripathi RS (2008) The sacred groves and their significance in conserving biodiversity: An overview. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Science 34 (3): 277 â€“ 291.
Verschuuren B, Wild R, McNeely J, Oviedo G, eds. (2010). Sacred natural sites conserving nature and culture. Washington, DC., Earthscan.
Bhakat RK, Sen UK (2013) Conservation value of a sacred grove. Indian Journal of Forestry 36 (2): 217-226.
Bhakat RK, Sen UK (2017) Sacred groves: Traditional plant conservation through deities. In: Bandopadhyay (Mukhopadhyay) S, Hens DK, De PS, eds. Plants the natural wonder: Challenges and avenues. Burdwan, Damodar group. Pp 211-224.
Cain SA, Castro GDO (1959) Manual of vegetation analysis. New York, Harper and Brothers.
Raunkiaer C (1934) The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Cain SA (1950) Life-form and phytoclimates. Botanical Review 16 (1): 1 â€“ 32.
Muller D, Ellenberg H (1974) Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. New Jersey, The Blackburn Press.
Saxena AK, Pandey P, Singh JS (1982) Biological spectrum and other structural functional attributes of the vegetation of Kumaun Himalaya. Vegetatio 49 (2): 111 â€“ 119. doi: 10.1007/bf00052766.
Meher-Homji VM (1964) Life forms and biological spectra as epharmonic criteria of aridity and humidity in tropics. The Indian Botanical Society 43: 424-430.
Rana TS, Datt B, Rao RR (2002) Life forms and biological spectrum of the flora of Tons Valley, Garhwal Himalaya (Uttaranchal), India. Taiwania 47 (2): 164 â€“ 169.
Sen UK, Bhakat RK (2009) Ecological role of sacred groves in plant conservation. In: Sinha TRC, ed. Effects of environmental toxicology on human health. New Delhi, NESA. Pp 211 â€“ 219.
Sen UK, Bhakat RK (2012) Sacred grove and plant conservation: An insight from taxonomy and ecology. In: Maiti GG, Mukherjee SK, eds. Mutidisciplinary approaches in angiosperm systematics. Kalyani, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani. Pp 410-421.
Sen UK (2016) Botanical and socio-cultural studies on some sacred groves of West Midnapore district, West Bengal. Ph.D. Thesis. Vidyasagar University, India.
Gillison AN (2018) Latitudinal variation in plant functional types. In: Greller AM, Fujiwara K, Pedrotti F, eds. Geographical changes in vegetation and plant functional types. Cham, Springer. Pp 21 â€“ 57. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-68738-4_2.
Jain SK, Rao RR (1977) A Handbook of field and herbarium methods. New Delhi, Today and Tomorrowâ€™s Printers and Publishers.
Anderson T (1862) Catalogue of plants indigenous in the neighborhood of Calcutta with directions for examination and preservation of plants. Calcutta.
Hooker JD (1872-1897) The flora of British India. Vol. I-VII. London, Reeve and Co.
Prain D (1903) Bengal plants. Vol. 1 & 2. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
Haines HH (1921-1925) The botany of Bihar and Orissa. Vol. 1-6. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
Bennet SSR (1979) Flora of howrah district. Dehradun, International Book Distributors.
Sanyal MN (1994) Flora of Bankura district. Dehradun, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.
Mitra JN (1958) Flowering plants of eastern India. Vol. I, Monocotyledons. Calcutta, The World Press Private Ltd.
Datta SC, Majumdar NC (1966) Flora of Calcutta and vicinity. Bulletin of Botanical Society of Bengal 20: 16 â€“ 120.
IUCN (2018) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-1. https://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed date: 27 December 2018.
Chase MW, Christenhusz MJM, Fay MF et al. (2016). An update of the angiosperm phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of Linnean Society 181 (1): 1 â€“ 20. doi: 10.1111/boj.12385.
Mygatt J, Medeiros J (2009) Lab manual to the flora of New Mexico. Albuquerque, University of New Mexico.
Gastauer M, Neto M, Alves JA (2017) Updated angiosperm family tree for analyzing phylogenetic diversity and community structure. Acta Botanica Brasilica 31 (2): 191 â€“ 198. doi: 10.1590/0102-33062016abb0306.
Rajendraprasad M, Krishnan PN, Pushpangadan P (1998) The life form spectrum of sacred grove and a functional tool to analyse the vegetation. Tropical Ecology 39: 211-217.
Jamir SA, Upadhaya K, Pandey HN (2006) Life form composition and stratification of montane humid forests in Meghalaya, northeast India. Tropical Ecology 47 (2): 183 â€“ 190.
Ghildiyal JC, Barthwal N, Khantwal A (2016) Life-forms and biological spectrum of Deeva Ka Daanda a sacred grove in Garhwal Himalaya. Indian Forester 142 (2): 167 â€“ 178.
Batalha MA, Martins FR (2004) Floristic, frequency and vegetation life-form spectra of a cerrado site. Brazilian Journal of Biology 64 (2): 201 â€“ 209. doi: 10.1590/S1519-69842004000200004.
Badshah L, Hussain F, Sher Z (2016) Floristic inventory, ecological characteristics and biological spectrum of plants of Parachinar, Kurram agency, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 48 (4): 1547 â€“ 1558.
Chigani HK, Javadi SA, Zahedi-Amiri G et al. (2017) Vegetation composition differentiation and species-environment relationships in the northern part of Isfahan Province. Land Degradation and Development 9 (2): 161 â€“ 175. doi: 10.1007/s40333-017-0050-2.
Misra MP, Mishra, PN, Pandey BN (1979) An ecological account of the vegetation of Brahmyoni Hills (Gaya). Proceedings
of the Indian Science Congress 3: 108 â€“ 109.
Sen UK (2018) Assessing the social, ecological and economic impact on conservation activities within human-modified landscapes: A case study in Jhargram District of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Conservation Science 9 (2): 319 â€“ 336.
Bohman K (2004) Functional and morphological diversity of trees in different land use types along a rainforest margin in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Gottingen, Gottingen.
The work has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or part of a published lecture or thesis) and it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. When the manuscript is accepted for publication in this journal, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.
Journal of Tropical Life Science is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License