Ameliorative Effect of Infused Watercress on Rat Galactopoiesis following Maternal Separation

Rahadian Yudo Hartantyo, Ucik Erlitaningsih, Jeremia Gerald, Indah Permata Sari, Laksmindra Fitria, Mulyati Mulyati


Galactopoiesis is the maintenance of milk production. The process that regulated primarily by prolactin hormone. The research was conducted to evaluate galactopoiesis activity by measuring prolactin level and milk production continuity of lactating rats after oral administration of infused watercress. Twenty lactating rats were randomly divided into five groups (two control groups and three variations of infused watercress dose groups). Serum prolactin was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Milk yield was measured using indirect milk measurement method by Sampson and Jansen. Milk protein level was measured using Kjedahl method. The treatment of infused watercress (10 g/kg body weight), started from postnatal day 3 until 12, indicated ameliorative effect on rat galactopoiesis by increasing milk yield and prolactin levels, but not milk total protein.

Full Text:



Andres A-C, Djonov V The Mammary Gland Vasculature Revisited. doi: 10.1007/s10911-010-9186-9

Barone JA (1999) Domperidone: A Peripherally Acting Dopamine 2 -Receptor Antagonist. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 33 (4): 429–440. doi: 10.1345/aph.18003.

Chat S, Layani S, Mahaut C et al. (2011) Characterisation of the potential SNARE proteins relevant to milk product release by mouse mammary epithelial cells. European Journal of Cell Biology 90 401–413. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcb.2011.01.002.

Cox DB, Owens RA, Hartmann PE (1996) Blood and milk prolactin and the rate of milk synthesis in women. Experimental Physiology 81 (6): 1007–1020. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.1996.sp003985.

Gallego MI, Binart N, Robinson GW et al. (2001) Prolactin, growth hormone, and epidermal growth factor activate Stat5 in different compartments of mammary tissue and exert different and overlapping developmental effects. Developmental Biology 229 (1): 163–175. doi: 10.1006/dbio.2000.9961.

Grattan D, Tissier P (2015) Hypothalamic Control of Prolactin Secretion, and the Multiple Reproductive Functions of Prolactin. Knobil and Neill’s Physiology of Reproduction: Two-Volume Set 1 469–526.

Grigor MR, Allan J, Carne A et al. (1986) Milk composition of rats feeding restricted litters. Biochem J 233 (3): 917–919. doi: 10.1042/bj2330917.

Hatsu IE, McDougald DM, Anderson AK (2008) Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition. Int Breastfeed J. doi: 10.1186/1746-4358-3-18

Heid HW, Keenan TW (2005) Intracellular origin and secretion of milk fat globules. European Journal of Cell Biology 84 (2–3): 245–258. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcb.2004.12.002.

Kobayashi K, Oyama S, Uejyo T et al. (2013) Underlying mechanisms involved in the decrease of milk secretion during Escherichia coli endotoxin induced mastitis in lactating mice. Veterinary Research 44 (1): 1–12. doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-44-119.

Laspiur JP, Burton JL, Weber PSD et al. (2004) Short communication: amino acid transporters in porcine mammary gland during lactation. Journal of dairy science 87 (10): 3235–3237. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73459-1.

Lin Y, Sun X, Hou X et al. Effects of glucose on lactose synthesis in mammary epithelial cells from dairy cow. doi: 10.1186/s12917-016-0704-x

Macheda ML, Williams ED, Best JD et al. (2003) Expression and localisation of GLUT1 and GLUT12 glucose transporters in the pregnant and lactating rat mammary gland. Cell and Tissue Research 311 (1): 91–97. doi: 10.1007/s00441-002-0661-5.

Matsuzaki T, Machida N, Tajika Y et al. (2005) Expression and immunolocalization of water-channel aquaporins in the rat and mouse mammary gland. Histochemistry and Cell Biology 123 (4–5): 501–512. doi: 10.1007/s00418-005-0753-x.

McManaman JL (2014) Lipid transport in the lactating mammary gland. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 19 (1): 35–42. doi: 10.1007/s10911-014-9318-8.

McManaman JL, Russell TD, Schaack J et al. (2007) Molecular determinants of milk lipid secretion. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 12 (4): 259–268. doi: 10.1007/s10911-007-9053-5.

Mello PRB, Okay TS, Botelho C (2007) The effects of exposing rats to cigarette smoke on milk production and growth of offspring. Jornal de Pediatria 83 (3): 267–273. doi: 10.2223/JPED.1620.

Neville M, McFadden T, Forsyth I (2002) Hormonal Regulation of Mammary Differentiation and Milk Secretion. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia 7 49–66.

Padmawati R, Dasuki D, Sudargo T (2016) Breastfeeding to reduce postpartum weight retention. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health 3 (12): 3504–3510. doi: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20164282.

Salamah E, Purwaningsih S, Permatasari E (2011) Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Komponen Bioaktif pada Selada Air ( Nasturtium officinale L . R . Br ). Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia XIV (2): 85–91.

Truchet S, Chat S, Ollivier-Bousquet M (2014) Milk secretion: The role of SNARE proteins. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 19 (1): 119–130. doi: 10.1007/s10911-013-9311-7.

WHO (2011) Infant and young child feeding. World Health 155 (May): A3929. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8709.2009.00234.x.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Tropical Life Science