Exotic Epiphytes on Tree Ferns in Cibodas Botanical Gardens: The Importance of Light Preferences and Host Characteristics

Decky Indrawan Junaedi, Taufikurrahman Nasution

Abstract


The study of exotic epiphytes on tree ferns is relatively scarce. Biological invasion of exotic epiphytes may imply negative consequences to native epiphytes and tree ferns, which are important components in tropical mountainous rainforest ecosystems. This study surveyed exotic epiphytes on tree ferns in Cibodas Botanical Gardens (CBG) and adjacent forests next to CBG. The objectives of this study are: a) to conduct inventory study of exotic epiphyte species on tree ferns, b) to examine how different these exotic epiphytes from each other based on their micro-climate preferences, c) to conduct invasive risk assessment of those exotic epiphytes, and d) to model the effect of environmental factors and host (tree ferns) characteristics to the occurrence of exotic epiphytes on tree ferns. We conducted multi-dimensional analysis to examine how different these exotic epiphytes based on their micro-climate parameters. We used Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) framework to estimate the invasion risks of surveyed exotic epiphytes. We performed Bayesian logistic regression to test the correlation between environmental and host characteristics and the occurrence probability of exotics epiphytes on tree ferns. We found 13 exotic epiphyte species on two native tree ferns species (Cyathea junghuhniana and Cyathea contaminans). Multidimensional analysis showed that Axonopus compressus is very different from other exotic epiphytes due to its environmental preferences. Ageratina riparia and Clidemia hirta were exotic epiphytes with the highest invasion risks. Therefore, we suggested that A. riparia and C. hirta are more likely to become invasive and may contribute significant impacts to native ecosystems. Lastly, the presence of Austroeupatorium inulaefolium as exotic epiphytes in tree ferns negatively correlated with the host height. Further study is needed to incorporate biological traits of the exotic epiphytes and more specific environmental parameters such as light chromatic quality in to the exotic epiphyte occurrence model. This study provides evidence for the existences of exotic epiphytes on tree ferns. The result of this study may also indicate that host characteristics and micro-climate factors could play important roles to inhibit the occurrence of exotic epiphytes on tree ferns.


Keywords


Invasive plant, ecology, conservation, logistic regression, Cibodas Botanical Gardens, epiphyte, tree fern, exotic epiphyte

Full Text:

PDF

References


Davis MA, Chew MK, Hobbs RJ et al. (2011) Don't judge species on their origins. Nature 474: 153 – 154. doi: 10.1038/474153a.

Gurevitch J, Padilla DK (2004) Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions?. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19 (9): 470 – 474. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2004.07.005.

Parepa M, Fischer M, Bossdorf O (2013) Environmental variability promotes plant invasion. Nature Communications 4: 1604. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2632.

Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM et al. (2000) Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications 10 (3): 689 – 710. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0689:BICEGC]2.0.CO;2.

CBD (2011) The targets 2011 – 2020. https://www.cbd.int/gspc/targets.shtml. Accessed: 30 November 2015.

Daehler CC (1998) The taxonomic distribution of invasive angiosperm plants: Ecological insights and comparison to agricultural weeds. Biological Conservation 84 (2): 167 – 180. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00096-7.

Werner FA, Homeier J, Gradstein, SR (2005) Diversity of vascular epiphytes on isolated remnant trees in the montane forest belt of southern Ecuador. Ecotropica 11: 21-40.

Bartels SF, Chen HY (2012) Mechanisms regulating epiphytic plant diversity. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 31 (5): 391 – 400. doi: 10.1080/07352689.2012.680349.

Bittner J, Trezos-Zelaya J (1997) Analysis of the vascular epiphytes of tree ferns in a montane rain forest in Costa Rica. Revista de Matematica: Teoria y Aplicaciones 4 (2): 63 – 73. doi: 10.15517/rmta.v4i2.148.

Moran RC, Klimas S, Carlsen M (2003) Low-Trunk epiphytic ferns on tree ferns versus Angiosperms in Costa Rica. Biotropica 35 (1): 48 – 56. doi: 10.1646/0006-3606(2003)035[0048:LEFOTF]2.0.CO;2.

Roberts NR, Dalton PJ, Jordan GJ (2005) Epiphytic ferns and bryophytes of Tasmanian tree-ferns: A comparison of diversity and composition between two host species. Austral Ecology 30 (2): 146 – 154. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2005.01440.x.

Mutaqien Z, Zuhri M (2011) Establishing a long-term permanent plot in remnant forest of Cibodas Botanic Garden, West Java. Biodiversitas 12 (4): 218 – 224. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d120406.

Van Steenis C, Hamzah A, Toha M (1972) Mountain flora of Java. Leiden, EJ Brill.

Yamada I (1975) Forest ecological studies of the montane forest of Mt Pangrango, West Java. 1. Stratification and floristic composition of the montane rain forest near Cibodas. South East Asian Studies 13: 402 – 426.

Pheloung PC, Williams PA, Halloy SR (1999) A weed risk assessment model for use as a biosecurity tool evaluating plant introductions. Journal of Environmental Management 57 (4): 239 – 251. doi: 10.1006/jema.1999.0297.

Team RC (2013) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed date: March 2018.

Plummer M (2003) JAGS: A program for analysis of Bayesian graphical models using Gibbs sampling. http://www.R-project.org/conferences/DSC-2003/. Accessed date: March 2018.

Kellner K (2015) A wrapper around 'rjags' to streamline 'JAGS' analyses. https://rdrr.io/cran/jagsUI/. Accessed date: March 2018.

Zotz G, Bermejo P, Dietz H (1999) The epiphyte vegetation of Annona glabra on Barro Colorado island, Panama. Journal of Biogeography 26 (4): 761 – 776. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.19

00304.x.

Feng Y, Wang J, Sang W (2007) Biomass allocation, morphology and photosynthesis of invasive and noninvasive exotic species grown at four irradiance levels. Acta Oecologica 31 (1): 40 – 47. doi: 10.1016/j.actao.2006.03.009.

Gentry AH (1988) Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75 (1): 1 – 34. doi: 10.2307/2399464.

Luttge U (1997) Physiological ecology of tropical plants. Heidelberg, Springer Verlag.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11594/jtls.08.03.06

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Tropical Life Science