Fruit Nutrients of Five Species of Wild Raspberries (Rubus spp.) from Indonesian Mountain’s Forests

Muhammad Imam Surya, Siti Suhartati, Lily Ismaini, Yuyun Lusini, Destri Destri, Dian Anggraeni, Suluh Normasiwi, Nurul Asni, Mirwan Abu Bakar Sidiq

Abstract


Rubus spp. (wild raspberries) is one of genera belongs to Rosaceae, also distributed in the mountain forest of Indonesia. It has a high potency to be cultivated plant. Although, some of the potential of Rubus has already known, information of about fruit nutrients of species that distribute in the mountain forest of Indonesia are not known yet. This study was aimed to determine the fruit nutrients of five species of wild raspberries that was collected in Cibodas Botanical Garden. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the fruits nutrients contents varied among five species of wild raspberries from Indonesian mountain's forests. Rubus fraxinifolius has the highest content of sugar (5.05 g sugar per 100 g fruits) compared to Rubus rosifolius, Rubus chrysophyllus, Rubus lineatus and raspberry. During the ripening and ripe period, there were a different value of vitamin C and iron contents. The highest vitamin C of R. fraxinifolius (83.65 mg/100 gram) on the ripening fruit stage II. On the other hand, the highest vitamin C of R. rosifolius (54.30 mg/100 gram) found on the stage of ripe fruit.


Keywords


Fruit nutrient, Indonesia, Rubus, wild raspberries

Full Text:

PDF

References


Hopkins J, Maxted N (2011) Crops wild relatives: Plant conservation for food security. Birmingham, Natural England and the University of Birmingham.

Alice LA, Campbell CS (1999) Phylogeny of Rubus (Rosaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal dna internal transcrobeff spacer region sequences. American Journal of Botany 86 (1): 81 – 97. doi: 10.2307/2656957.

Hummer KE (2010) Rubus pharmacology: Antiquity to the present. Hort Science 45 (11): 1587 – 1591.

Backer CA, van de Brink RCB. (1963) Flora of Java (Spermatophyte only) vol. I. N.V.P. Noordhof – Groningen, Springer.

van Steenis CGGJ (1972) The Mountain flora of Java. Leiden, E. J.

Brill.

Kalkman C (1993) Rosaceae. In: van Steenis CGGJ, van Steenis-Kruseman MJ, Departemen Pertanian Indonesia, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Kebun Raya Indonesia Eds. Flora Malesiana ser. I. Vol. 11 Jakarta, Noordhoff – Kolff. pp 227 – 351.

Surya MI (2009) Keanekaragaman dan potensi Rubus spp. koleksi Kebun Raya Cibodas. Warta Kebun Raya 9 (1): 21 – 26.

Surya MI, Ismaini L, Destri (2015) Keragaman buah raspberries (Rubus spp.) asal Indonesia. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Biologi: 296 – 305.

Normasiwi S, Surya MI. (2016) The potential plant for fruit crop in Cibodas Botanical Garden. Biosantifika: Journal of Biology and Biology Education 8 (2): 206 – 213.

Thompson MM (1995) Chromosome numbers of Rubus species at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository. Hort Science 30 (7): 1447 – 1452.

Hummer KE (1996) Rubus diversity. Hort Science 31 (2): 182 – 183.

Howarth DG, Gardner DE, Morden CW (1997) Phylogeny of Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) and its implications toward colonization of the Hawaiian Islands. Systematic Botany 22 (3): 433 – 441. doi: 10.2307/2419819.

Harrison RE, McNicol RJ, Jennings S (1997) Soft fruit and perennial crops: Rubus breeding and genetic research. Scottish crop research institute Ann. Rep. 1996/1997: 63 – 68.

Knight VH (2004) Rubus breeding worldwide and the raspberry breeding programme at horticultural research international, east mailing. Jugoslovensko Vocarstvo 38: 145 – 146.

Kaume L, Howard LR, Devareddy L (2011) The blackberry fruit: A review on its composition and chemistry, metabolism and bioavailability, and health benefits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60 (23): 5716 – 5727. doi: 10.1021/jf203318p.

Talcott ST (2007) Chemical components of berry fruits. In: Zhao Y eds. Berry fruit value added products for health promotion. Florida, CRC Press. pp 51 – 72.

van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N (2002) Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Plant resouces of South-East Asia No. 12 (2). Oegstgeest, Backhuys Publishers.

Pearson D (1976) The chemical analysis of foods. London, Churchill Livingstone.

Probst Y (2015) A review of the nutrient composition of selected Rubus berries. Nutrition and Food Science 45 (2): 242 – 254. doi: 10.1108/NFS-07-2014-0063

Smith MM, Davis M, Chasalow FI, Lifshitz F (1995) Carbohydrate absorption from fruit juices in young children. Pediatrics. 95 (3): 340 – 344.

Serpen JY (2012) Comparison of sugar content in bottled 100% fruit juice versus extracted juice of fresh fruit. Food and Nutrition Sciences 3 (11): 1509 – 1513. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.311196.

Trowell H (1976) Definition of dietary fiber and hypotheses that it is a protective factor in certain diseases. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 29 (4): 417 – 427.

Ahmad M, Masood S, Sultana S et al. (2015) Report: Antioxidant and nutraceutical value of wild medicinal Rubus berries. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 28 (1): 241 – 247.

USDA (2014) National nutrient database for standard reference release 28. http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/. Accessed: February 7, 2016.

Rahman MM, Khan MMR, Husain MM (2007) Analysis of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Contents in various fruits and vegetables by UV spectroscopy. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 42 (4): 417 – 424. doi: 10.3329/bjsir.v42i4.749.

Luisa JB, Laura AM, Consuelo DM (2014) Evaluation of the antioxidant properties and aromatic profile during maturation of the blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth) and the bilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz). Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín 67 (1): 7209 – 7218. doi: 10.15446/rfnam.v67n1.42649.

Muhammad I, Ashiru S, Ibrahim DI et al. (2014) Effect of ripening stage on vitamin C content in selected fruits. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 2 (3): 60 – 65.

Igwe OU (2014) Quantitative estimation of a scorbic acid levels in citrus fruits at variable temperatures and physicochemical properties. International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Science 5: 67 – 71.

Vicente AR, Manganaris GA, Sozzi GO, Crisosto CH (2009) Postharvest handling: A systems approach, 2nd ed. In: Florkowski WJ, Shewfelt RL, Brueckner B, Prussia SE eds. Nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables. Amsterdam, Elsevier Inc.

Wegwu MO, Amadi FA (2007) Comparison of mineral content of some ripe and unripe fruits in Nigeria. Plant Products Reserach Journal 11 (1): 15 – 18. doi: 10.4314/pprj.v11i1.352 60.

Arredondo M, Núñez MT (2005) Iron and copper metabolism. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 26 (4 – 5): 313 – 327. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2005.07.010.

Mengel K, Kirkby EA (1982) Principles of plant nutrition. Worblaufen-Bern, International Potash Institute.

Brennan R, Graham J (2009) Improving fruit quality in Rubus and Ribes through breeding. Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology 3 (Special Issue 1): 22 – 29.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11594/jtls.08.01.13

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Tropical Life Science