Isolation of Arsenic Resistant Escherichia coli from Sewage Water and Its Potential in Arsenic Biotransformation

Basanta Bista, Sangita Shakya

Abstract


Arsenic contamination in drinking water from ground water poses a threat to the health of a large population in developing countries in Asia. This has sparked great interests in the potential of different microbes in arsenic resistance and removal from water. This study involves isolation of arsenic resistant Escherichia coli from sewage water from Kathmandu University and investigation of its attributes. Arsenic resistant E. coli was successfully isolated which could survive in high concentration of arsenic. The maximum tolerance of arsenite was 909.79 mg/L (sodium arsenite) and 3120.1 mg/L arsenate (sodium arsenate) which is well above most natural concentration of arsenic in ground water. This particular E. coli tolerated multiple heavy metal like silver nitrate, cobalt sulphate, cadmium chloride, nickel chloride, mercury chloride, copper sulphate, and zinc chloride at concentration 20 µM, 1 mM, 0.5mM, 1mM, 0.01 mM, 1 mM, and 1 mM respectively which are concentrations known to be toxic to E. coli. Biotransformation of arsenite to arsenate was also checked for by a qualitative silver nitrate technique. This E. coli was able to transform arsenate to arsenite. It showed some sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Nalidixic Acid. As E. coli and its genome are very widely studied, these particular properties have a lot of potential in microbial remediation or microbial recovery of metals and possible recombination approaches.


Keywords


Arsenic, arsenic resistance, bacteria, maximum tolerance, heavy metals

Full Text:

PDF

References


Francesconi KA, Kuehnelt D (2004) Determination of arsenic species: a critical review of methods and applications, 2000-2003. Analyst 129 (5): 373-395. doi: 10.1039/b401321m.

Bissen M, Frimmel FH (2003) Arsenic- A Review. Part I: Occurrence, toxicity, speciation, mobility. Acta hydrochim. Hydrobiology 31 (1): 9-18. doi: 10.1002/aheh.200390025.

Welch AH, Oremlan RS, Davis JA, Watkins, SA (2006) Arsenic in ground water: a review of current knowledge and relation to the CALFED solution area with recommendations for needed research. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 4.

Jackson C, Dugas S, Harrison K (2005) Enumeration and characterization of arsenate-resistant bacteria in arsenic free soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37 (12): 2319-2322. doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.04.010.

Ozdemir G, Ceyhan N, Ozturk T et al. (2004) Biosorption of chromium (VI), cadmium (II) and copper (II) by Pentoea sp. TEM18. Chemical Engineering Journal 102 (3): 249-253, doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2004.01.032.

Islam ABMR, Maity JP, Bundschuh J et al. (2012) Arsenic mineral dissolution and possible mobilization in mineral-microbe-groundwater environment. Journal of Hazardous Materials 262: 989-996. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.07.022.

Bruneel O, Duran RM, Casiot C et al. (2006) Diversity of microorganisms in Fe-As-rich acid mine drainage waters of Carnoule’s France. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72 (1): 551-556. doi: 10.1128/AEM.72.1.551-556.

Mergeay M, Nies DH, Schlegel HG et al. (1985) Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 is a facultative chemolithotroph with plasmid- bound resistance to heavy metals. Journal of Bacteriology, 162 (1): 328-334.

Nies DH (1999) Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 51 (6): 730-750. doi: 10.1007/s002530051457.

Kinegam S, Yingprasertchai T, Tanasupawat S et al. (2008) Isolation and characterization of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria from arsenic-contaminated soils in Thailand. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 24 (12): 3091-3096. doi:10.1007/s11274-008-9821-4.

Shakya S, Pradhan B, Smith L et al. (2012) Isolation and Characterization of aerobic culturable arsenic resistant bacteria from surface and ground water of Rautahat District, Nepal, Journal of Environmental Management 95: S250-255.doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.08.001.

Mandal BK, Suzuki KT (2002) Arsenic around the world a review. Talanta 58: 201-235. doi: 10.1016/S0039-9140(02)00268-0.

Oremland RS, Stolz JF (2005) Arsenic, microbes and contaminated aquifers. Trends Microbiology 13: 45-49. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2004.12.002.

Nepal Red Cross Society. (2000) Research on Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of Terai Nepal. Final Report.

WHO (2001) Environmental Health Criteria 224: Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds. 2nd edn. Geneva, World Health Organization.

Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherris JC, Turck M (1966) Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 45 (4): 493.

Patel JB, Cockerill III FR, Bradford PA et al. (2015) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests (202), M100-S22. Pennsylvania, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Taj MK, Samreen Z, Ling JX et al. (2014) Escherichia coli as a model organism. International Journal of Engineering Research and Science and Technology 3 (2): 1-8.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11594/jtls.07.01.11

Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Tropical Life Science